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Nation Building in South KoreaKoreans, Americans, and the Making of a Democracy$
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Gregg A. Brazinsky

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780807831205

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807867792_brazinsky

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Development over Democracy

Development over Democracy

Chapter:
(p.127) 5 Development over Democracy
Source:
Nation Building in South Korea
Author(s):

John Lewis Gaddis

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/9780807867792_brazinsky.9

This chapter examines the role of the United States and South Korea's military officers in creating and sustaining developmental autocracy in the country between 1961 and 1972. It suggests that American officials helped Park Chung Hee in implementing unpopular policies and weakening his opposition so that he could institute crucial reforms necessary for economic development. After discussing American efforts to push the military junta away from military rule and economic nationalism toward political and economic liberalization, the chapter looks at the conflict between Washington and the Park regime owing to their differences over how a developmental autocracy should function, as well as Park's rifts with his domestic opponents over foreign policy. It also analyzes Park's introduction of Yusin, a harsh authoritarian system that essentially rejected democracy and which the United States had to support because it had little choice.

Keywords:   military, United States, South Korea, developmental autocracy, Park Chung Hee, economic development, military junta, foreign policy, Yusin, democracy

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