This chapter focuses on the early experiences of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Virginia, Florida, and North Carolina, and its success in organizing the urban South. In particular, it considers how Marcus Garvey learned about organization and politics by applying the strategies and ideas of Booker T. Washington, Henry McNeal Turner, and others with a southern perspective. It also examines Garvey's emphasis on African redemption and his controversial definition of black separatism. In addition, the chapter discusses Garvey's strategies to reach out to blacks in the South, paying particular attention to James Walker Hood Eason's role in spreading Garveyism into the South. Finally, it reflects on Garvey's speech at the North Carolina Negro State Fair, held on October 25, 1922 in Raleigh, in which he took African Americans to task for being lazy.
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