This chapter examines the structure of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in the South on a state-by-state basis. It documents the spread of UNIA divisions, both geographically and chronologically, by focusing on the publicized activities of important southern divisions, as well as the steps taken by national, regional, and local organizers in the region. The chapter analyzes these patterns in order to understand when and how the UNIA spread, along with the dynamics of organization in rural areas. It also considers the role played by the Negro World in establishing the essential link between Marcus Garvey and the southern UNIA divisions and in addressing topics important to southern blacks. Finally, the chapter discusses issues that were given emphasis by Negro World, including the labor crisis in southern agriculture, lynching and the Ku Klux Klan, and the persistence of white racism.
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