This chapter examines the Garvey movement's direct intellectual legacy with respect to the discourse of black nationalism and the integrationist tendencies of the modern civil rights movement. It considers the ties of activists at the local, state, regional, and national levels to the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) as well as the presence of the core tenets of Garveyism—black pride and self-determination—in black thought and popular culture. The formative influence of Garveyism has been acknowledged by some of the most influential African Americans of the twentieth century, particularly Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad and iconic black nationalist Malcolm X. Marcus Garvey reemerged as an icon courtesy of black popular culture, even as most historians have not acknowledged the pervasiveness of grassroots Garveyism in virtually every African American cultural, political, and intellectual movement since the 1930s.
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