This chapter examines the use of fortifications by the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia at the Battle of Charleston in 1863 during the Civil War. A week after the Battle of Gettysburg, Federal troops launched a campaign against Charleston that would be the largest land attack on the defenses of that important city in South Carolina. The Confederates devoted a great deal of time, energy, and resources in preparing Charleston's defenses, such as strengthening the masonry forts guarding the harbor, putting sand against the sea face of Moultrie, and erecting earthworks around it. The chapter considers the role of Maj. Gen. John C. Pemberton, who replaced General Robert E. Lee as commander of the Confederates army in March 1862, in fortifying Charleston against enemy attacks. It looks at Pemberton's campaign at Secessionville and the defenses made by G. T. Beauregard, his successor, for Charleston. Finally, the chapter describes Brig. Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore's operations on Morris Island.
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