This chapter examines the use of fortifications by the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia at the battle of Fredericksburg, one of the oldest towns in Virginia, during the Civil War. In particular, it looks at the clashes between Confederates General Robert E. Lee and Union commander Ambrose Burnside, and the fortifications used by both sides, including artillery emplacements, earthworks, and stockades. The chapter also considers the defenses that were erected at Richmond using slave labor. It shows that campaigns of the last half of 1862 gave the Rebels plenty of experience at fighting without fortifications, relying instead on existing civilian structures and even the smallest inequality of the ground for protection.
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