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Sold AmericanConsumption and Citizenship, 1890-1945$

Charles F. McGovern

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780807830338

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807876640_mcgovern

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(p.523) Index

(p.523) Index

Source:
Sold American
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

A&P grocery stores, 50
Abundance, 19, 337, 344, 347, 370, 374
Adams, Samuel Hopkins, 148
Ad-Busters, 370
Adorno, Theodor, 144
Advertisements: as political documents, 24, 67;
reason-why copy style, 38–39
Advertisers: and professionalism, 5, 23, 25, 65;
contempt of consumers, 8, 34, 51–53, 56–58, 180, 229–30;
claim to power, 17, 67, 91–93, 242, 294;
distance from consumers, 33–36, 56–60, 130, 229–30, 238–41, 270–84;
and women consumers, 36–48, 79–88, 226, 232–38, 344;
political language of, 62, 67–92, 130, 226–27, 369, 371;
compare themselves to politicians, 65–66, 73–74;
equate market choice with political freedom, 68–75, 130, 285;
equate consuming with democracy, 75–77, 270–80;
resist consumer sovereignty, 76–77;
and social inequality, 96–103, 194–95;
and distinct American culture, 103–30;
defend selling, 178–82;
enemies of CR defend advertising, 178–82, 257–60, 263, 334–35, 338;
critique Your Money's Worth, 179–82;
clash with consumerists, 222, 253–60, 261, 327;
defend capitalism, 222, 284–300, 319–23;
against New Deal, 223, 253–60, 262–70, 284–90;
in Depression, 223–41;
and children, 238–41;
against Food and Drug Bill, 255–60;
and public relations, 265–60, 334;
and rural consumers, 280;
charge consumerists with communism, 319–23, 324;
private war against government, 334–40;
in World War II, 334–53;
Advertising: and identity, 23;
influence on modernity, 23–31;
history of, 23–36;
service of corporations, 23–36, 88–94, 131, 262–300;
depictions of American society in, 24–25, 270–84;
and consumer demand, 26–29;
and national progress, 27–31, 266–67;
as anthropologists, 29–31;
as sociologists, 31–36, 58–59, 270–84;
in radio, 49–53, 241, 243;
oral vs. print, 51–53;
corporate imagery, 89–94, 125;
corporate executives as elected rulers, 91–93;
and upper-class consumers, 96–97;
depictions of American history, 124–40, 227–28, 266;
Veblen on, 146–48;
misleading and false, 172–73, 196–97;
wasteful, 172–74;
testimonial, 173;
monopolistic, 173–74;
unscientific, 197;
and showmanship, 225–26, 229;
comic-strip, 237, 238;
to children, 241;
backlash against, 241–45;
political economy and, 284–300;
American exceptionalism in, 294–300, 338–41, 370;
free press guaranteed by, 320;
Advertising agencies: and service, 25–27;
development of marketing in, 26–27, 32–34, 119;
in radio, 50–59;
and commission system, 224, 335
Advertising and Selling, 247
Advertising Federation of America, 322, 337
(p.524) Advertising Research Foundation, 338
Advertising Retail Federation, 323
Agnew, Paul, 166, 167, 168
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), 255, 256, 262
Alcoa Corporation, 343
Alexander Hamilton Institute, 27
Allen, Fred, 56
Allport, Gordon, 52, 59
American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), 224, 315, 335
“American Century,” 363
American Civil Liberties Union, 306
American culture: embodied in goods, 120–31, 339–42
American Economists' Committee for Women's Activities, 233
American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC), 164–65, 166, 184, 187
American exceptionalism, 105–6, 121, 277, 294, 300, 338, 339–41, 363, 365
American Expeditionary Force (AEF), 35, 108
The American Family Robinson, 291
American Federation of Labor, 303
American flag, 111–12
The American Home, 235
American Home Economics Association, 167, 189, 202–3, 235, 299
Americanism, 16, 103–23, 126, 266, 302, 305, 327, 371, 372. See also Nationalism
Americanization, 123–30
American Laundry Machinery Company, 83, 88
American Liberty League, 291
American Listeners Society, 243
American Locomotive, 348
American Mercury, 211
American Newspaper Publishers Association, 321
American Radiator, 125
American Rolling Mill Company, 339
American Standards Association, 299
American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), 89, 101–2, 102, 109, 110, 289
American Tobacco Company, 50, 77
American Way of Life, 3, 130, 262–300, 302, 321–22, 328, 331, 335, 336, 338, 341, 347, 352, 363, 371
The American Way of Life, 321–22
American Woolen Company, 70
Amos ‘n’ Andy, 50, 56
Anderson, Benedict, 9, 105
Andy Consumer, 77
Anger Spaghetti, 121
Anthropology, 138, 139, 140, 143, 160, 167
Anti-consumer movement, 260, 314–16
Antiques Roadshow, 374
Apple Computer, 374
Arden, Elizabeth, 235
Armistead, William, 119
Arnold, Frank, 53
Arnold, Thurman, 322, 324, 338
Associated Grocery Manufacturers, 299
Association of Consumers' Research Subscribers, 306
Association of National Advertisers, 224, 284, 335, 341
Aunt Jemima, 93
Average American, 271, 274, 280, 329, 343. See also Typical Americans
Ayer, Frederick Wayland, 91
Aylesworth, Merlin, 227
“The Backward Art of Spending Money,” 150–54, 158, 237
The Baffler, 370
Bailey, George: character in It's a Wonderful Life, 2, 3, 4, 353, 360–61
Baldwin, Roger, 306
Ballantine Ale, 339
Ballyhoo, 242
Balmer, Edwin, 27, 69
Barnum, P. T., 225–26, 242, 283
Bartholdi, Frederick, 114
Barton, Bruce, 29, 65, 75–76, 227, 263–64, 267, 271, 284, 309, 336, 364
Batten, Barton, Durstine and Osborn (BBDO), 225, 228, 280–81, 284, 337
Beard, Charles, 10, 120, 178
Beard, Mary, 10, 178
(p.525) Beecher, Catherine, 151
Berlin, Richard E., 319–20
Bernays, Edward, 231, 265
Better Homes and Gardens, 226, 230
Betty Crocker, 93
B. F. Goodrich, 50, 108
Bird, William, 265
Bliven, Bruce, 309
Block, Martin, 53
Bok, Edward, 148, 165
Book-of-the-Month Club, 178
Borden, Neil H., 338
Borden's Milk, 107
Bourne, Randolph, 64, 119
Bowles, Chester, 336
Boycotts, 20, 157, 363
Bradbury, Amos, 44, 259
Brady, Robert, 249–50, 309, 310
Brainerd, Bertha, 56
Brand names, 3, 26–27, 68, 80–81, 90, 119, 156, 165, 174, 179, 190, 196, 197, 255, 257, 342
Bread and Butter, 333
Breen, T. H., 10
Brinkley, Alan, 13, 331
Bristol, Lee, 284
Bristol-Myers, 284
Brooks, Van Wyck, 119
Brookwood Labor College, 312
Browder, Earl, 290
Brown, JoAnne, 65
Budweiser, 344
Buick Hall of Fame, 228
Bull Durham Tobacco, 126
Bureau of Home Economics, U.S., 167, 175, 275
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S., 275
Bush, George W., 2
Business Cycles, 150, 153, 154
Business Week, 323, 325, 326
“Buy American,” 230–31
“Buy at home,” 118
Cahan, Abraham, 9
California Canned Asparagus, 88
Calkins, Earnest Elmo, 37, 228–29
Cameron, W. J., 291
Campbell, Persia, 332
Campbell's Soup, 38, 42, 88, 107, 109, 114
Cantor, Eddie, 56
Cantril, Hadley, 52, 59
Capitalism, 4, 23–25, 140, 158, 178, 199–200, 216, 221, 229, 242, 244, 284, 311, 336;
Capra, Frank, 2, 353, 360–61;
Why We Fight, 360
Carpenter, Charles, 179, 181
Carroll, Lewis, 171
Carroll, Carroll, 56
Car Talk, 369
Casey, Joseph, 320
Cassells, John, 332
Catchings, Waddill, 254
Caterpillar tractor, 108
Catt, Carrie Chapman, 235
Cavalcade of America, 291
“Century of the Common Man,” 363
Charles Daniel Frey Agency, 36
Chase, Stuart, 15, 135, 167–68, 243, 244, 248, 309, 372;
collaboration with Schlink, 168–78, 182–85, 186–88, 214;
founding of CR, 184, 187
Chase and Sanborn, 32, 56, 101, 107, 125
Chester, Colby, 284
Chevrolet, 231, 289;
71 Days of Work, 231
Chicago, 139
Chiclets, 121
Children, 238–41;
conduct scrap drives, 329
Childs, Marquis, 328, 331, 344
China, 27, 321
Chrysler, 127
Chrysler, Walter, 92
Citizens: as markets, 18
Citizenship: consumption as, 3, 5, 16, 68;
conditions of, 63;
criticism of, 63–64;
modern, 371, 374–75
Clark, Bennett Champ, 251
Clark, John B., 136
(p.526) “Class” vs. “mass,” 34, 55, 103, 270
Coca-Cola, 98, 114, 339
Cohen, Lizabeth, 12–13, 14, 331, 332, 364
Cold War, 4–5, 19, 27, 363, 364
Collier Crowell Publishing, 314
Collier's, 148
Collins, James, 36
Columbia Graphophone, 100
Columbus, Christopher, 114, 124
Commercial culture, 6, 58, 64–65
Committee on Consumer Relations in Advertising, 324
Committee on Recent Economic Changes, 126
Communications Act of 1934, 242
Communism, 4;
charges against CR strikers, 304–7;
charges against consumer movement, 319–21, 323–26, 364
Communist Party, 305
Coney Island, 34
The Consumer, 237
Consumer activism, 20, 363–64
Consumer cooperatives, 160
Consumer demand, 26–29, 135–37, 181. see also Marginalist economics
Consumer engineering, 228–29
Consumer goods: as democratic symbols, 97–103;
as “national,” 106–9, 267;
as elements of social status, 142–46;
technical knowledge needed by consumers, 152–54, 156–57;
low quality of, 158;
standards for, 166, 196, 244, 249, 255, 256, 262, 324;
waste and adulteration in, 168–69, 192–93;
psychological aspects of, 173–74;
CR criteria for, 191–96;
high markups on, 192;
and social distinction, 203;
grades and labeling of, 255, 257, 307, 313, 324;
and rationing, 328–33, 343;
and alienation, 373–74
Consumer illiteracy, 188, 237
Consumerists, 4, 17, 135, 243, 369;
contempt of consumers, 8;
antimarket sentiment, 16, 174;
criticism of advertising, 171–75, 183, 194, 324, 365;
debate meanings of goods, 194–96, 197, 254, 261;
in World War II, 327–33
Consumer movement, 7, 16, 137–38, 149, 162, 163, 241, 248–49, 251–52, 253, 256, 280, 313, 316, 335;
charged with communism, 319–21, 323–26, 364
Consumer republicanism, 206–8, 328, 331, 363–64
Consumers: as voters, 3;
as citizens, 3, 135, 221, 291, 329–31, 338;
invented by advertisers, 31–61, 106;
as commodities, 32–34, 146;
income categories of, 33–34;
women as principal, 36–48, 145–46, 151–54, 161–62;
as radio audience, 48–60;
as sovereigns of economy, 67–77, 138, 285–88;
in marginalist economics, 136–38;
and lack of knowledge, 151–54, 156, 158, 160, 170–72;
as families, 151–54, 160;
need philosophy of spending, 153;
lack criteria for success, 153–54;
identity in marketplace, 155;
lack of group characteristics, 155;
disadvantaged in market, 157–58, 169, 188;
as pragmatic, 158–59, 160;
as public, 162, 211–12;
advertising exploitation of, 170–74;
and sales resistance, 174, 175, 182, 188–89, 200;
require investigations into goods, 175, 178, 183;
and self-reliance, 183–84, 187–88, 211;
require practical information, 190–91;
rights of, 210;
and labor, 215–16, 307–9;
blamed for Depression, 226, 230–36, 254;
as children, 238–41;
as “guinea pigs,” 245–47, 273, 282, 283, 300, 316;
as typical Americans, 271, 274–80, 282–83, 343–44;
as “neighbors,” 273–80, 281, 289, 347;
as capitalists, 285–89, 347, 350;
new relationship with advertisers, 324–26;
in World War II, 327–53
Consumers' Advisory Board (CAB), 248, 249–50, 251, 252, 255, 257, 272
Consumers' interest, 151–60, 167, 211, 307–9, 310–11, 313
(p.527) Consumers National Federation, 320, 325, 332
Consumers' republic, 14, 364
Consumers' Research (CR), 7, 15–16, 134, 184–85, 222, 241, 246, 251, 280, 295, 314, 315, 319, 321, 332, 333, 364, 369;
Handbook of Buying, 185, 190, 199, 213;
defines distinct consumers' interest, 186–87, 198, 206–8, 215–16, 222, 310–12;
focuses on goods, 187–88;
challenges advertisers' authority over goods, 187–98;
advocates consumer activism, 188–89, 208, 211;
and labor movement, 188–89, 215–17, 309, 311, 312;
and information on goods, 189;
and product testing, 189–98;
General Bulletin, 190;
and product rankings, 190, 210;
and member confidentiality, 190, 213;
and Veblenian approach, 191–96;
Consumer' Research Bulletin, 192, 213, 252;
and luxury goods, 193–95;
on cosmetics, 194;
and members, 194–95, 199, 208–13, 306–7;
and antimodernism, 195, 199, 203–4;
and taste, 195–96;
and utilitarianism, 195–96, 216;
criticizes advertising, 196–97;
and brand names, 197;
and symbolism of consumption, 197;
isolation of, 198–99, 251–52, 303–4;
and employees' integrity, 198–99, 304–5;
and anticommercial sentiment, 198–204;
and capitalists as consumers' enemy, 199;
advocates sales resistance, 200;
criticizes media, 200–201;
and household institutes, 201;
censorship of, 201–2;
and schools, 202–3;
seeks freedom from consuming, 203–4;
and 19th century nostalgia, 204–6;
and antiurbanism, 205–6;
move to Washington, N.J., 206, 303–4;
limits of vision, 206–8;
as middle class, 208–16;
contempt of members, 209–11;
professionalism of members, 211–12;
members as leftists, 212–13;
and women, 214–15;
and working class, 215–17;
as enemy of business, 244, 256;
radicalism of, 245, 251–53, 302, 311–13;
and New Deal, 248–53, 302;
campaign for Department of the Consumer, 252, 302, 313;
and liberals and liberalism, 252–53, 302, 309–10;
explores consumers' party, 302–3;
strike at, 303–7, 304, 309, 310–11;
charges of communism against strikers, 305–7;
anti-communism of, 309–10;
and enemies of federal government, 310. See also Schlink, F. J.
Consumers Union (CU), 299–300, 307–9, 314, 315, 319, 321, 325, 332–33, 350, 364, 369
Consumers Union Reports, 308
Consumption: as citizenship, 17, 79, 123–30, 163, 217, 221–23, 266, 291, 300, 327, 329, 330–31, 365, 369, 371, 374;
and self-transformation, 27, 77–78, 157;
and civilization, 27–29;
and politics, 63, 300;
as self-determination, 77–88, 157;
as naturalization, 79–80;
as women's issue, 79–85;
as freedom, 82–88, 330, 345, 347, 362;
as right, 83–85, 353, 372;
as social movement, 85;
as democratic institution, 96–103, 278, 290, 329, 330–31, 362;
as American national culture, 96–131, 227, 260, 266, 275–79, 290, 327, 362, 363, 365, 371–72;
as ritual of nationality, 118–23, 266, 290, 302, 329;
as Americanization, 123–30;
as culture, 138–60, 266, 267;
conspicuous, 142–45, 149, 327;
and social status, 142–46, 153, 194–95;
in everyday life, 150–60, 170–78, 200, 275–79, 341–42, 362;
as inefficient, 151–54;
as subjective, 153–54, 329;
choice in, 156–58, 278;
government regulation in war, 328–33;
and postwar political economy, 367–68;
contemporary critics of, 370, 372–73
Cooley, Charles Horton, 64
Coolidge, Calvin, 223, 263
Cooperative Distributors, 303
Copeland, Edith, 184, 187
(p.528) Copeland, Royal S., 250
Copywriters, 31, 178, 180, 338, 361;
and female consumers, 36–40;
and radio, 49–53, 58, 96, 104, 124–25
Corporations: popular hostility toward, 88–91, 95;
and electoral metaphor, 89–94, 97, 256, 260, 267–69, 285;
and CR, 208;
opposition to New Deal, 262–300, 302;
and public, 264–70;
sponsor films, 284–85, 294–95;
and World War II, 334–53
Cream of Wheat, 38, 55
Crowds, 63–65
Crowell Institute on Consumer Relations, 314–15, 316, 324, 325
Crumb, Robert, 370
Culture, American, 96–131
Curtis, Cyrus H. K., 148
Curtis Publishing Company, 75, 224, 337, 339
Cutex, 126
D'Arcy, William, 254–55
Davies, Valentine, 368
Davis, Elmer, 336
Davis, Louise, 40
Day, William, 57, 225, 230
Declaration of Independence, 77
De Graaf, John, 370
Delineator, 201
DelMonte, 125
Demand, 136–37
Democracy, 120;
consumption and, 96–103, 329–31, 352–53
Democracy of goods, 98–103, 290
Department of Agriculture, U.S., 247
Department of Commerce, U.S., 275
Depression, 3, 13, 15–16, 68, 103, 131, 160, 184, 187, 217, 221, 241, 245, 265, 272, 284;
politicizes consumption, 221–23, 335;
“Buy Now” campaigns, 230–35, 237
De Tarde, Gabriel, 64
Dewey, John, 139, 150, 158, 167, 178
Dies, Martin, 310, 320
Dilling, Elizabeth, 309
Dodge, Horace, 92
Dodge, John, 92
Douglas, Mary, 373
Douglas, Paul, 160, 178
DuPont, 265, 291
Durstine, Roy S., 57–58, 180, 244, 258
eBay, 374
The Economic Effects of Advertising, 338
Edelman, Murray, 66–67
Edie, Mildred, 202, 310
Edison, Thomas, 92, 100
Edwards, Louise, 309
Efficiency movement, 42
Electrical Testing Laboratories, 189, 192
Elmhirst Foundation, 184
Emergency Conference of Consumers' Organizations, 251
Engel, Katherine, 214
The Engineers and the Price System, 142
England, 103
Enna Jettick, 343
Erwin, Wasey, 294
Esty, William, 229
Eugenics, 35, 85, 104–5
Europe, 103
Exide Battery Corporation, 343
Famous Names, Inc., 173
Federal Radio Division, 49–51
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 167, 245, 248, 316–20, 322
Federated American Engineering Societies, 164
Fidelity-Phenix Company, 342
Filene, Edward A., 89
Firestone, 354–55
Fleischmann's Yeast, 250, 322
Florence Cookstove, 42
Food Administration, U.S., 164
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S., 245–46, 256
Food and drug reform, 255–56
(p.529) Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938), 248;
reform of, 251
Ford, Henry, 89, 92
The Ford Hour, 291
Ford Motor Company, 291, 298, 298
Foster, William T., 254, 315
Four Freedoms, 343, 361
Fox, Frank, 334
Fox, Richard, 11
France, 103
Frank, Dana, 232
Frank, Thomas, 370
Frank, Waldo, 119
Franklin, Benjamin, 267
Frederick, Christine M., 39, 42, 45, 68, 69, 81, 122, 127–28, 180, 257
Frederick, J. George, 32, 65
Freedom of choice, 48, 81, 130, 156–58, 285, 300, 329, 342, 371
Free enterprise, 284–300, 328, 336, 337–38, 342, 347, 350, 362, 370
Friedan, Betty, 365, 372
From Dawn to Sunset, 290–91, 292–93
Fuller, Walter H., 337, 339
Functionality, 140–41, 149, 153
Furnas, J. C., 277, 279
Futurama, 298, 299
F. W. Woolworth Company, 89
Gainaday Electric Washer, 83
Gallup, George, 238
Gardiner, Edward H., 337
Gellner, Ernest, 105–6
General Electric Corporation, 83, 84, 89, 256, 263, 265, 290, 352, 353;
G-E Circle, 281
General Federation of Women's Clubs, 325, 326, 332
General Foods Corporation, 294
General Motors Corporation (GM), 89, 227–28, 256, 263, 265, 266–67, 268–69, 279;
strikes at, 279, 290, 298, 299, 350
Generation of Vipers, 238
George Batten Agency, 90–91
Germany, 103
Gerstle, Gary, 104–5
Gettysburg Address, 227
Gillette, King, 91–92, 98–99, 99, 126
Gillies Coffee, 81
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 151
Glickman, Lawrence, 12, 311
Globalism, 370, 372–75
Gold Cross shoes, 343
Gold Dust soap, 88
Golden Gate International Exposition, 295
Goode, Kenneth, 56–57, 179, 181, 264
Good Housekeeping, 201, 226, 316, 319–20, 321, 322
Good Housekeeping Institute, 316, 319–20
Gordon, Leland, 329
“Grace Ellis,” 280–81
Graybar Building, 270
Griffith, Bill, 370
Griswold, Kate, 40
Groesbeck, Kenneth, 338
Guisewite, Cathy, 370
Habermas, Jurgen, 18
Hader, Mathilde, 189, 214
Hall, S. Roland, 37
Happiness Candy, 50
Harap, Harry, 179, 198
Harding, T. Swann, 247
Harper's, 201, 211
Harrington, Michael, 365, 372
Hayek, Friedrich, 309
Hearst Corporation, 316–17, 320, 321, 324
Heasty, John, 305
Heinz, 339, 345
Henderson, Leon, 251, 336
Herring, E. Pendleton, 312
Hill, George Washington, 50
Hires Root Beer, 107
Hobsbawm, Eric, 9
Holmes, Mildred, 41, 180
Home economics, 152–54, 155, 179, 202
Home economists, 5, 154, 179, 189, 214, 254
Hoosier Kitchen Cabinets, 42, 81
(p.530) Hoover, Herbert, 164, 178, 222
Hoover vacuum cleaners, 42
Hopkins, Claude C., 25, 41, 85
Horowitz, Daniel, 137
Hosiery Union (AFL), 306
Hotchkiss, George Burton, 181
Hotpoint, 352
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), 310, 320–21
Household production, 170–71, 175, 180, 183, 205, 307
“How America Lives,” 275–79, 345
Howarth, Dr. M. B., 192
How to Turn People into Gold, 182
Hoyt, Elizabeth Ellis, 160
Igo, Sarah, 271
I'll Tell the World!, 322
Immigration, 6, 105–6, 123–34
Income levels, 33, 98
Independence Square, 270
Industrialization, 79, 120, 135, 160, 204
Industry, 137, 140–42;
waste in, 164–65, 168–70;
planning in, 169, 170
Ingersoll watches, 120
Institute for Consumer Education, 323
Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 291
Institute of Distribution, 315
Institutional economics, 150
International Silver, 126, 127
Ipana, 50
Isherwood, Baron, 373
It's a Wonderful Life, 1–2, 353, 360, 361
Ivory Soap, 38, 100–101, 108, 120
Jacobs, Meg, 254, 331–32, 363
Jacobson, Lisa, 240
Jam Handy Company, 290–91
Jello, 98
Jenkins, Susan, 305
Jevons, W. Stanley, 136
“Jim Henry,” 93
John Day Publishers, 202
Johnson, Hugh, 250, 251, 252
Johnson, Mark, 66–67
John Wanamaker's, 231
Juergens Bakeries, 83
J. Walter Thompson, 26, 31, 32, 34, 41, 45, 51, 56, 91, 107, 123, 179, 180, 225, 226–27, 230, 231, 240, 251, 264, 275, 284, 285, 286–87;
women's department, 40
Kallet, Arthur, 245–47, 251, 303, 305, 307, 310, 312, 321, 364
Karo Syrup, 26
KDKA, 49
Kelley, Florence, 164
Kellogg's Corn Flakes, 38, 70, 72, 81, 108, 192
Kelvinator, 26
Kennedy, John E., 38
Kent, A. Atwater, 92
Keynesianism, 13
Klein, Naomi, 370
Knight, Frank, H., 159–60
Knox hats, 121
Kyrk, Hazel, 15, 138, 160–63, 309;
philosophy of consumption, 155–59, 160;
A Theory of Consumption, 155–60;
and consumer values, 156;
criticizes marginalism, 156;
and freedom of choice, 156–59, 278;
influence of, 160, 190
Labor, 136, 140, 143–44, 149, 248, 249, 290–91, 344;
and suffrage, 79–80;
and consumer interest, 215–16, 254, 309, 311
Labor Bureau, 187
Labor movement, 16, 85, 188, 215, 285, 289–90, 307, 312, 321, 324, 347, 364
Ladies Home Journal, 44, 148, 165, 224, 232–35, 275–79, 338, 344, 345;
“It's Up to the Women” campaign, 233–35
Laemmle, Carl, 91–92
Lakoff, George, 66–67
Landon, Alfred, 273
Larrabee, C. B., 247, 256
Lasker, Albert, 38
Lasn, Kalle, 370
Laughlin, J. Lawrence, 139, 150
(p.531) Leach, William, 11, 106
League for Industrial Democracy, 312
League of Women Shoppers, 251, 308
League of Women Voters, 233
Lears, Jackson, 11, 66, 125, 373
Le Bon, Gustave, 64
Lee, Gerald Stanley, 64
Lee, Ivy, 265
Lehigh Cement, 107
Lerner, Max, 179
Lever, E. J., 303
Lewis and Clark, 125
Libby-McNeill, 85, 93
Liberalism, 7, 65, 160;
and war, 327–28, 364
Liberals: criticize CR, 306–7
Liberty, 321, 338
Life, 272
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, 74–75, 93
Lincoln, Abraham, 124, 267
Lincoln Highway, 109
Link, Henry C., 342
Lippmann, Walter, 63–64
Lipsitz, George, 13
Listerine, 17, 173
“Little Woman, GPA,” 44–46, 238
Livingston, James, 11, 79, 136–37
Lloyd, David, 9
Loeb, Eleanor S., 189, 303
Look, 272
Lorain Stoves, 83
Lord & Thomas, 25, 38, 75, 337
Lorimer, George Horace, 148
Lowe, Lisa, 9
Luce, Henry, 363
Lucky Strike cigarettes, 50
Lynd, Helen M., 160, 177, 272
Lynd, Robert S., 160, 163, 177, 188, 237, 247, 249, 272, 309, 316;
Middletown, 177–78, 272
MacFadden Publications, 321, 322
Mack, Pauline Beery, 189
MacManus, Theodore, 92–93, 181
Macy's, 315, 367
Mad, 365
Madison Avenue, 16, 29, 34, 35, 48, 55, 58, 66, 95, 103, 104, 119, 171–72, 179, 180, 182, 193, 195, 196, 209, 223–24, 235, 244, 247, 248, 257, 262, 274, 333, 341, 342, 352, 362, 370. See also Advertisers
Mahin's Magazine, 37
Main Street Sketches, 55
Malthus, Thomas, 137
Marchand, Roland, 36, 59, 66, 90, 98, 125, 265, 334
Marcuse, Herbert, 365
Marginalist economics, 136–37, 144, 146, 150, 153, 156, 157, 158, 169, 181, 183–84. See also Neoclassical economics
Marshall, Alfred, 136
Marx, Karl, 135, 139, 149
Mass audience, 48–61. See also Advertisers
Mass production, 97, 140, 170
Masters, Dexter, 310
Material modernity, 5, 27, 61, 119, 127, 131, 171, 176, 203, 204, 274, 300, 352, 365, 374
Material nationalism, 104–30, 328–33, 339–41, 363–64
Matthews, J. B., 302–3, 310, 320–21, 324;
report on consumer movement, 320–21
Maxon, Lou, 336
Maxwell automobiles, 99–100
Maxwell House, 121
McCall's, 235, 272, 315
McDonald's, 374
McGivena, Leo, 279
Mead, George Herbert, 64, 139
Measurements for the Household, 165, 166
Mencken, H. L., 64, 237, 247
Mennen, 93
Merton, Thomas, 365
Metaphor, 15;
of home as business, 42–48, 151–52, 162;
in professions, 65–69;
electoral, 69–74, 118, 207–8, 256, 260, 267–69, 285, 342, 369, 371
Metropolitan Life, 289, 339
(p.532) Middle class, 19;
as consumers, 34–35, 97–98, 138, 167, 273–83, 363, 364, 371
Middletown, 177–78, 272
The Middletown Family at the New York World's Fair, 295, 296–97
Middletown in Transition, 272
Miller, Daniel, 373
The Miracle on 34th Street, 367–69
Mises, Ludwig von, 309
Mitchell, Wesley C., 15, 138, 150–54, 160–62, 163, 177, 184;
criticizes marginalism, 150;
criticizes consumption as inefficient, 151–52;
calls for training of consumers, 152–54;
criticizes social status in consumption, 153;
calls for philosophy of consumption, 153–54;
influence of, 154, 155, 158, 160, 167, 237–38
Modernity, 5, 14, 23, 160, 170, 178, 206, 266–67, 371, 374
Modernization, 10
Modern Priscilla, 201
Montgomery, Donald, 320, 324, 338
Morris, William, 204
Mumford, Lewis, 119
Muncie, Indiana, 272
Munsey, Frank, 148
Nader, Ralph, 365
Nash-Kelvinator Company, 350, 352, 356
The Nation, 201, 212, 246–47
National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), 263, 284, 291, 309, 321
National Biscuit Company (Nabisco), 108, 120
National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 50, 51, 53, 56, 227–28, 280
National Bureau of Standards, 164–65, 166, 175, 189, 201, 248
National Committee on Education by Radio, 243
National Consumer-Retailer Council, 325, 326
National Consumers' League, 164, 188, 308
National culture, 9;
consumption and, 103–23, 272–79
National Electric Light Association, 75
National identity, 3;
consumption and, 5, 130, 227
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), 248
Nationalism, 365;
consumption and, 4–5, 266;
advertisers and, 103–6;
“civic,” 104–5;
“racial,” 104–5;
culture and, 105–6;
economic, 114–18, 294, 328;
cultural, 118–23, 125–26, 339
National Labor Relations Board, 307, 309
National Recovery Administration (NRA), 249–50, 251, 256, 262, 311
National Retail Dry Goods Association (NRDGA), 282–83, 315, 324
Nation's Business, 289
Neoclassical economics, 136–37, 146, 156, 158. See also Marginalist economics
Neoliberalism, 20, 372–73
Nepanee Dutch Kitchenet, 42
Netherlands, 103
“New American tempo,” 122–23, 127. See also Modernity
New Deal, 4, 13, 16, 184, 213, 217, 221–22, 245, 248, 249–50, 252, 254, 255, 256, 260, 262, 265, 267, 285, 302, 311, 321, 322, 330, 332, 347, 363, 370
New Era, 3, 160, 170, 223, 229
New Republic, 184, 201, 212
Newsweek, 202
New Woman, 11, 79–80
New York Daily News, 229, 279
The New Yorker, 211
New York Herald, 201, 315
New York University, 184
New York Vacuum Cleaner Company, 83
New York World's Fair, 295–300;
consumers pavilion, 298–300. See also World of Tomorrow
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 306
Nike, 372, 374
Norge, 352
Notaseme Hosiery, 121
N. W. Ayer & Son, 31, 45, 75, 76, 89, 90–91, 97, 101, 106, 119, 125, 128, 129, 224, 226, 228, 230, 284, 315
(p.533) Oakland Overland Six, 121
Office of Civilian Defense Volunteer Organization, 331
Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, 329
Office of Price Administration (OPA), U.S., 328–29, 331–33, 336, 360, 363
Office of War Information (OWI), U.S., 329, 336
Ogburn, William F., 252
Old Dutch cleanser, 38, 81
Oldsmobile, 345
O'Mahoney, Joseph, 322
100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, 245–48
O'Sullivan's Rubber Heels, 29
Our Master's Voice: Advertising, 243
Oursler, Fulton, 321
Overland Autos, 107, 127
Overproduction, 141, 176
Packard, 120, 121
Packard, Vance, 372
Palmer, Dewey H., 196, 303, 307, 310
Parade of the States, 227–28
Park, Robert, 64
Parker pens, 70
Parlin, Charles Coolidge, 75
Parrington, Vernon, 120
Patent medicines, 73, 147, 148, 169, 196
Patten, Simon N., 64, 137–38, 181
Pearl, Raymond, 247
Pecuniary logic, 140–42, 153
Peirce, Melusina, 151
Peiss, Kathy, 216
Penn, William, 125
Pepsodent, 50, 56
Pequot sheets, 344
Perkins, Ray, 56
Peter's Milk Chocolate, 70
Phillips, M. C., 194, 202, 214, 252, 302
Phillips, Wilbur, 160
Phonographs, 100–101
Piggly-Wiggly stores, 45, 47–48
Pillsbury, 344
Pinkham, Lydia, 251
Pitkin, Walter, 237–38
Political language, 8–9, 15–16, 17–18, 67–94, 98–103, 130–31, 371
Pope, Daniel, 26
Popular culture, 24, 225–26, 329
Popular Front, 222, 308
Populism, 88
Powell, Harford, Jr., 179–80
Powell, Mrs. J. Richard, 282–83
Pragmatism, 11–12, 153, 155, 158, 168
Presbrey, Frank, 119
Printers' Ink, 27, 68, 73, 109, 112, 224, 232, 247, 306–7, 338, 341
Printers' Ink Monthly, 273
Proctor & Gamble, 93, 108
Product testing, 131, 189–98, 307, 363, 370
Profitable Advertising, 40
Progressive Era, 6, 105, 119, 120, 163, 259
Progressive obsolescence, 122, 229
Progressivism, 88
Psychological Corporation, 342
Psychology of advertising, 37
The Psychology of Radio, 52
Public Opinion, 63
Public relations, 16, 262–67, 315
Public sphere, 18. See also Habermas, Jurgen
Puffed Wheat, 107, 192
Purchasing agent, 44
Purchasing power, 160, 221
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), 13, 164, 248
Puritanism, 137, 203
Quaker Oats, 120
Queen Marie of Romania, 123, 173
Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, 369
Radio: blurs social distinctions, 59;
and cultural uplift, 59
Radio advertising: profitability of, 48–51
Radio audiences, 15, 48;
cultural potential of, 48;
resistance to advertising, 49–50;
commercial potential of, 49–51;
intimacy of, 51–54;
as family, 53;
(p.534) and “average listener,” 57–59;
and children's programs, 241
Radio Corporation of American (RCA), 50
Raymond, C. E., 25
Reber, John, 56
Redbook, 235
Red Network, 309
Reis, Bernard, 303
Remington Rand, 83
Republicanism, 7, 65, 77, 79
Republic Steel, 347, 350, 351
Resor, Helen L., 40
Revere Copper, 352
Richards, Ellen Swallow, 151
Richardson, Anna Steese, 257, 314–15, 325
The Rise of David Levinsky, 9
Roberts, Evelyn, 189
Roberts, Harlow, 56
Rodgers, Daniel, 371
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 235, 320
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 222, 248, 254, 262, 264, 267, 273, 279, 320, 332, 333, 334, 336, 352, 361
Rorty, James, 243–44;
advocates collectivism, 244, 247
Rosenzweig, Roy, 216
Royal Tailors, 121, 123, 127–28
Rubicam, Raymond, 326
Ruskin, John, 169, 204
Russia, 27, 321
Ruth, Babe, 173
Ruthrauff and Ryan, 44
Salesmanship, 146, 171–72, 177
Sapolio Cleanser, 70
Saturday Evening Post, 77, 125, 148, 339
Saturday Review of Literature, 247
Schlink, F. J., 15, 135, 189, 192, 195, 198, 199, 203, 205, 206, 207, 210, 211, 212–13, 217, 247, 256, 303–4, 320, 333, 372;
in standardization movement, 166–67;
collaborates with Stuart Chase, 168–78;
challenges liberalism, 187, 309–12;
labor sympathies of, 188, 189, 192, 193, 215;
collaborates with Arthur Kallet, 245–48;
and New Deal, 248–53, 256;
collaborates with J. B. Matthews, 302–5, 310;
and CR strike, 302–11;
and anti-communism, 309–12;
radicalism of, 311–13;
criticizes liberals, 312–13. See also Consumers' Research
Schor, Juliet, 370
Schuler, Loring, 233
Schulz, Charles M., 370
Science: of consumption, 153–54;
scientific expertise, 154, 174
Scientific Buying, 185
Scientific management, 42
Scott, Howard, 142
Scott, Walter Dill, 33, 37–38, 53
Scripps, Howard, 294–95
Sears, Roebuck and Company, 108, 315
Selling Mrs. Consumer, 180
Selz shoes, 121
Shank, Barry, 373
Sheldon-Claire, 350
Shredded Wheat, 83, 107
Simmel, Georg, 8
Simmons bedding, 121
Simplex Electric Ironer, 83
Skin Deep, 202, 214
Sloan, Alfred, 227–28, 263, 289
Sloan Foundation, 323
Smith, Adam, 169, 181
Sokolsky, George E., 320, 321, 324
Soule, George, 309
Southern Pine Association, 108
Sowers, J. L., 273–74
Specifications, industrial, 165, 166, 174, 183, 262
Standard Home Utilities Company, 231
Standardization: movement in industry, 164–67, 174, 191;
household, 165–66;
and consumers, 166–67;
advertisers critique, 179–80
Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company, 31
(p.535) Standards for consumer goods, 151–54, 244, 249, 258–59
Standards of decency, 144–47, 158, 330
Statue of Liberty, 109, 114, 115–17
Stebbins Boys, 56
Steinway Pianos, 121–22
Stevens-Duryea Motorcar, 127
Stole, Inger, 265
Straight, Dorothy, 184
Strasser, Susan, 26
Stratton, Samuel, 166
Studebaker, 345
Styleplus Clothes, 108
Substitution evil, 80–81
Suburbanization, 13–14, 363, 369
Suggestion, theory of, 37–40, 53
Sumner, William Graham, 264
Sunny Jim, 93
Susman, Warren, 271
Swift & Company, 89, 125
Swope, Gerard, 263
Tawney, R. H., 168
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 42
Teague, Walter Dorwin, 298
Technical, Editorial and Office Assistants Union (AFL), 303
Technocracy, 142
Technology, 139, 140, 149, 176, 187
Tedlow, Richard, 265
“Tell it to Sweeney!,” 279
Temporary National Economic Committee (TNEC), 262, 322
Tetley Tea, 81
The Theory of Business Enterprise, 139
Theory of Consumption, 155–60
The Theory of the Leisure Class, 139, 142–46, 153
Thirty Minutes of Sunshine, 56
Thomas, Norman, 178
Thomas, Paul, 9
Thompson, E. P., 12
Time, 201–2
Tip Top Bread, 83
Trade characters, 90
Trademarks, 90, 190, 255
The Tragedy of Waste, 135, 168–70, 184
True Story, 321
Tugwell, Rexford G., 178, 182, 248, 249
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 120
Twelve-year-old mentality, 35, 180, 210, 238
Typical Americans, 270–71;
as fabricated, 270–83;
as middle class, 273–83;
Uncle Sam, 42, 109, 112, 113, 114, 233–35, 234, 338
Underconsumption, 141
Uneeda Biscuit, 26, 38, 108, 120
United States Rubber Corporation, 341, 349
Universal Pictures, 92
University of Chicago, 139, 150, 154
Updegraff, Robert, 122
U.S. Steel, 265
Van Camp's Pork and Beans, 85, 107
Vanguard Press, 246
Vaseline, 50
Veblen, Thorstein, 15, 138–49, 150, 163, 167, 197, 229;
rejection of belief in progress, 140;
and origins of property, 140, 143–44;
and conflict between business and industry, 140–42;
and waste-fulness of business, 140–44, 160;
and instinct of workmanship, 141–42, 144;
on engineers, 142;
and pecuniary logic, 142–43, 145–46;
on emulation, 143–46, 160;
and consumption as conformity, 144–45;
neglects symbolism in consumption, 144–45;
and women consumers, 145–46;
criticizes marginalism, 146;
criticizes advertising, 146–48;
criticizes press, 147–48;
and labor as distinguishing human activity, 149;
(p.536) “Velvet Joe,” 75, 93
Victor phonographs, 100, 108
Voorhis, Jerry, 320
Voting, 62
Wallace, Henry A., 363
Wal-Mart, 372, 374
Walsh, Richard, 202
Walzer, Michael, 327
Warbasse, James P., 160
Ware, Caroline, 251, 329–31, 342, 345
War Industries Board, 164
Warne, Colston, 177, 251, 309, 338, 342, 350
Warner and Swasey, 294
War Production Board, 329
Wartime Advertising Council, 336, 345, 350
Washburn-Crosby, 93
Washington, George, 114
Washington Monument, 109, 114
Weir, Walter, 337
Weiss, E. B., 334
Welch's Grape Juice, 107, 108, 121
Weld, L. D. H., 334
Westbrook, Robert, 327
Western Electric, 83, 85, 86–87
Westinghouse, 295, 296–97, 352
WHAS, 50
What Does Jake Think?, 281–82, 282
Wheeler-Lea Act, 322
Wilcox, Clair, 257
Williams, Raymond, 12
Willis, Paul, 299–300
Willkie, Wendell, 363
Woman's Home Companion, 202, 226, 314, 318, 344
Women consumers, 15, 35, 160;
advertisers' views on, 37–40, 214–15, 235–38;
in advertising business, 40;
Veblen on, 145–46;
as disadvantaged under brand-name system, 151–54, 170–71;
in 19th century, 170–71, 204–6;
as children, 171;
as resistant to technical expertise, 180;
and CR, 214–15;
Depression image of, 232–38;
in World War II advertising, 344
Women's National Radio Committee, 243
Women's suffrage, 15;
consumption as, 79–83
Woodward, Helen, 39
WOR, 315
Working class, 12, 137;
as consumers, 34, 97–98, 138, 215, 364;
as radio audience, 54–55;
and Consumers Union, 308–9
World of Tomorrow, 295, 362
World War I, 6, 35, 36, 118, 139, 164, 167
World War II, 4, 13, 16, 19, 35, 222, 265, 326, 327–59, 361–64, 369;
and political obligation, 327–28, 359, 370;
advertising in, 334–59
Wyand, Charles S., 305
Wylie, Philip, 238
Yank, 361–62
Yerkes, Robert M., 35
Young, James Webb, 31, 335, 336
Your Money's Worth, 15, 184, 185, 191, 244, 245, 246;
as inspiration for consumer movement, 15, 135, 163, 170–78;
criticizes salesmanship, 170–72;
criticizes advertising, 172–73;
criticizes federal policies toward consumers, 174–75;
calls for consumers' foundation, 175–76;
and antimarket sentiment, 176;
criticizes mass culture, 176–77;
anti-modernism of, 176–78;
business reaction to, 178–82;
readers' response to, 182–83, 198
Yuban Coffee, 26
Zelinsky, Wilbur, 103
Zunz, Olivier, 271