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Confronting AmericaThe Cold War between the United States and the Communists in France and Italy$
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Alessandro Brogi

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780807834732

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807877746_brogi

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Polarized Confrontation: U.S. Aid and Propaganda versus Cominform in France and Italy, 1947–1950

Polarized Confrontation: U.S. Aid and Propaganda versus Cominform in France and Italy, 1947–1950

Chapter:
(p.87) 3 Polarized Confrontation: U.S. Aid and Propaganda versus Cominform in France and Italy, 1947–1950
Source:
Confronting America
Author(s):

Alessandro Brogi

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/9780807877746_brogi.8

This chapter discusses America's “permanent revolution,” which envisioned a land of ultimate emancipation for every individual and “for all human spirit” on Earth. The “permanent revolution” had a compelling premise in another revolution, that of “rising expectations.” This was how U.S. economic advisor Harlan Cleveland described the quantitative and qualitative effects of modernization, mass consumption, and mass democracy that the United States had experienced since the end of World War I, and was now supposed to transmit to Europe. The message stressed the universal logic of the connection between prosperity, democracy, and, in general, a sense of self-fulfillment. Europe's postwar hardship required emphasis on the “quantitative” aspects first.

Keywords:   permanent revolution, ultimate emancipation, rising expectations, Harlan Cleveland, modernization, mass consumption, mass democracy

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