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Confronting AmericaThe Cold War between the United States and the Communists in France and Italy$

Alessandro Brogi

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780807834732

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807877746_brogi

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(p.509) Index

(p.509) Index

Source:
Confronting America
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
Abbas, Fehrat, 225
Abstract expressionism, 162
Acheson, Dean, 56, 57, 138
Achilles, Theodor, 434 (n. 42)
Ackley, Hugh Gardner, 328
Action Party (Italy), 407 (n. 49)
Adams, Henry and Brooks, 2
Adams, John Quincy, 56
Adornato, Ferdinando, 379
Adorno, Theodor, 290
Afghanistan/Afghanistan War, 310, 362, 368, 372, 373
AFL (American Federation of Labor), 67–68, 69, 99–100, 146, 170, 414 (n. 40)
Aga-Rossi, Elena, 196, 472 (n. 3)
Agnelli, Giovanni, 37
Ajello, Nello, 407 (n. 55)
Aldrich, Richard, 139
Alexander, Harold, 63, 66
Algerian War, 10, 223–24, 227–29, 242, 255, 275;
and Evian Accords, 243
Alicata, Mario, 32, 47, 48, 105, 169, 189–90, 200, 250, 287, 288
Alienation theories, 347, 355, 391
Allen, George V., 416 (n. 77)
Allen, Raymond B., 141
Allende, Salvador, 322
Alliance for Progress, 243
Alliance for the Defense of Culture (PCI), 37, 104–5, 163
Allied Control Cooperation (Italy), 63
Allied Control Council (Germany), 64
Almanachs (PCF), 165, 169
Alphand, Hervé, 138
Alphandéry, Claude: L'Amérique est-elle trop riche?, 246
Althusser, Louis, 279, 362
Ambrose, Stephen, 376
Amendola, Giorgio, 195, 217, 233, 241, 258, 309, 359;
and DC, 265;
and European integration, 262–63, 310, 311, 316;
and intellectuals, 287–88;
and neo-capitalism, 249, 250, 350, 447 (n. 5);
and Prague Spring, 305, 310;
and youth movements, 280, 282, 289
American Committee on United Europe, 139, 149
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 337
Americanism, 7, 40, 169–70, 296
Americanization: in Europe, 5, 11, 184, 376, 378;
in France, 171, 196, 244, 251, 276, 293–94, 360, 387;
in Italy, 171, 196, 244, 245–46, 250, 276, 293–94, 341, 356, 360, 379, 387. See also Modernization
American literature. See PCF; PCI
Americans for Democratic Action, 57
American studies: in France, 178;
in Italy, 178–79
Amici del cinema, 168
Amis de la Liberté, 183
Anderson, Robert B., 205
Andreotti, Giulio, 324–25, 339, 343, 346
Andrieu, René, 362
Angola, 310
Annales school, 278
Anti-Americanism, 5–7, 9, 11–12, 402 (n. 19);
in Europe, 33–34, 157, 182, 235, 293–94, 334, 359, 396–97;
in France, 32–34, 44, 54, 111, 131, 135–36, 142, 145, 154, 195, 204, 218–19, 244, 255–56, 381, 472 (n. 3);
French intellectuals and, 33–54 passim, 170, 183–85, 186–87, 191, 193, 252, 299;
and globalization, 396;
Italian intellectuals and, 33–52 passim, 162, 183–85, 187, 191, 278;
in Italy, 34, 111, 116, 131, 162, 231, 267, 341, 359, 381, 396, 472 (n. 3);
right-wing form of, in France and Italy, 8, 34, 35, 41, 42, 43;
in Spain, 317;
in Third World, 203–4, 238;
(p.510) Anti-intellectualism (U.S.), 2–3, 28, 161, 179–80, 192, 295
Anti-Sovietism, 38, 198–99, 302, 306, 307, 337, 364, 366
Antonini, Luigi, 414 (n. 40)
Antonioni, Michelangelo, 274, 289, 360
Arab countries, 224, 265, 308
Aragon, Louis, 31, 33, 49, 189, 191, 279;
and Prague Spring, 286;
and U.S. culture, 45, 170;
and Vietnam, 266
Arbasino, Alberto, 278
ARCI (Associazione Ricreativa Culturale Italiana), 288, 350, 358
Arendt, Hannah, 181–82
Argentieri, Federico, 377
Argentieri, Mino, 469 (n. 50)
Armstrong, Louis, 410 (n. 97)
Aron, Raymond, 30, 97, 181, 183, 185, 294, 363, 366
Aron, Robert: Le cancer américain, 35
Asor Rosa, Alberto, 266, 366
Association Amicale Universitaire France-Amérique, 178
Association Française pour l'Accroissement de la Productivité, 110
Association France-Etats-Unis, 110, 174
Associazione per la Libertà della Cultura, 183
Attlee, Clement, 103, 413 (n. 27)
Auriol, Vincent, 149
Aurore, L', 167
Auschincloss, John, 255
Austria, 82, 103
Avanguardia Operaia, 279
Avanti, 70
Aveu, L' (The Confession), 304
Badoglio, Pietro, 19
Balducci, Ernesto, 374
Baldwin, James, 95
Ball, George, 296
Ballanger, Robert, 270
Bandiera gialla, 276
Bandung Conference, 204
Banfi, Antonio, 135
Barbusse, Henri, 122
Barca, Luciano, 190, 250, 311
Barre, Raymond, 294
Barzini, Luigi, 342
Basso, Lelio, 83, 105
Baudelaire, Charles, 33
Baudrillard, Jean, 376
Beatles, 297
Beatniks, 276
Beauvoir, Simone de, 22, 30;
America Day by Day, 194;
Le deuxième sexe, 195;
and feminism, 194–95, 347–48;
Force of Circumstance, 22;
and U.S. culture and society, 44–45, 162, 186, 193–94;
and U.S.S.R., 199;
U.S. tour, 45, 46, 80;
and Vietnam, 266
Becker, Loftus, 228
Beinart, Peter, 395
Belgium, 119, 120, 417 (n. 80)
Bell, Daniel: The End of Ideology, 185, 192, 295
Bellocchio, Marco, 289
Benda, Julien, 365, 437 (n. 82)
Benton, William, 173, 416 (n. 77)
Berding, Andrew, 111, 112–13
Bergamaschi, Elsa, 247, 249–50
Berger, Samuel D., 99, 144, 145, 149
Beria, Lavrenti, 441 (n. 23)
Berle, Adolf, 235
Berlin, Isaiah (Sir), 281
Berlinguer, Enrico, 305, 315, 371;
and anti-Americanism, 312, 317–18, 323, 385;
and consumerism/austerity, 249, 323, 366, 389;
and détente, 312, 336–37;
and European integration, 311;
and European Left, 304, 313, 367;
and feminism, 351–52;
and intellectuals, 366;
as KGB target, 322;
and NATO, 306, 310, 311–12, 322–23, 331, 336, 368, 385;
and Portugal, 316;
and Prague Spring, 304–6;
and PSI, 367–68, 370;
and Soviet Union, 307, 310–11, 368, 374;
and “third way,” 311;
and U.S. in 1980s, 367–68, 370;
and Vietnam, 259, 261;
and youth culture/movements, 170–71, 280, 354–55. See also Eurocommunism; Historic Compromise
(p.511) Berlinguer, Giovanni, 364
Berlusconi, Silvio, 379, 381, 396
Bernanos, Georges, 16
Bernstein, Leonard, 437 (n. 82)
Bertrand, Mireille, 348
Beuve-Méry, Hubert, 36, 114
Bevin, Ernest, 99
Bianciardi, Luciano, 253
Bidault, Georges, 17, 69, 70, 102–3, 128, 154, 156, 213
Billoux, François, 25, 157
Bissel, Richard, 159
Black Panthers, 292, 293
Blum, Léon, 38, 68, 69, 75. See also Blum-Byrnes agreements
Blum-Byrnes agreements, 38, 40, 46, 76–77, 79, 93
Bobbio, Norberto, 186, 189–90, 366
Bogart, Humphrey, 172
Bohlen, Charles, 88–89, 99, 105, 180, 241, 267, 268, 270, 298
Bolshevism, 22, 23
Bondy, François, 184, 185
Boogaart, Richard W., 255
Book centers/traveling libraries: PCI, 163–64, 168;
and “Battle for the Book,” 164;
in France, 169
Borgna, Gianni, 358, 379
Bosworth, Richard, 104
Bouret, Jean, 291
Bourguiba, Habib, 228
Bradley, Omar, 203
Brando, Marlon, 172, 453 (n. 87)
Brandt, Willy, 313, 314, 335;
and Ost-politik, 304, 313, 367
Brezhnev, Leonid, 303, 308, 318;
Brezhnev Doctrine, 309
Brokaw, Tom, 376
Brown, Irving, 100, 184
Bruce, David K. E., 118, 120, 180, 220, 395
Brzezinski, Zbigniew: and Eurocommunism, 337–38;
and Historic Compromise, 339, 341, 344, 345, 346;
and NATO, 338, 344;
PCI's view of, 368
Buckley, William F., Jr., 57, 296
Bufalini, Paolo, 280, 352
Bulgaria, 72
Bullit, William, 68
Bundy, McGeorge, 241, 267, 269
Burke, Edmund, 2
Burnham, James, 57, 59, 181
Burns, Ken, 376
Bush, George H. W., 369
Bush, George W., 396
Buttiglione, Marina, 352
Byrnes, Jimmy, 20. See also Blum-Byrnes agreements
Cacciari, Massimo, 365
Cachin, Marcel, 38
Cafagna, Luciano, 28, 199
Caffery, Jefferson, 64–79 passim, 184, 395;
and de Gaulle, 117, 413 (n. 37);
and expulsion of PCF from government, 83–84;
and French public opinion, 100;
and interim aid to France, 98;
and Marshall Plan, 89, 97, 116;
and trade unions in France, 100
Cahiers du communisme, 95, 167, 258, 314, 347, 364, 411 (n. 113)
Caldwell, Erskine, 44
Calendario del popolo, Il, 164
Calvino, Italo, 55, 189–90, 287, 388;
and anti-Americanism, 55, 433 (n. 28);
leaves PCI, 188, 199;
and U.S. culture, 42, 376, 409 (n. 83)
Cambodia, 355
Campaign of Truth, 137, 173, 201
Camus, Albert, 30, 122
Capote, Truman, 172, 453 (n. 87)
Capra, Frank, 101
Carey, James B., 105–6
“Carnation Revolution.” See Portugal
Carnegie Foundation, 184
Carosello, 254
Carrillo, Santiago, 312, 313, 316, 462 (n. 67)
Carter, Jimmy, 318, 336, 370;
administration, 337–38, 384, 392;
and budget, 344;
and Eurocommunism, 337–38, 343–45. See also Human rights
Casanova, Laurent, 49, 157, 188, 233
Casaroli (Cardinal), 373
Case del Popolo (PCI), 163, 164, 358
(p.512) Cassano, Franco, 355–56
Castoriadis, Cornelius, 278, 281
Castro, Fidel, 266;
Castroism in Europe, 266, 275
Catholic Action, 104
Catholicism: in France, 25–26, 29, 170, 427–28 (n. 35);
in Italy, 15, 20–21, 27;
and Lateran Pacts, 27, 103;
and mass culture, 254, 379;
and youth culture, 170, 300, 355. See also Catholic Action; DC; Vatican
Cattaneo, Carlo, 48
Caute, David, 161
CCF (Congress for Cultural Freedom), 180–86, 218, 239, 279, 393, 394, 395;
conferences, 185;
and Gramscian cultural hegemony, 183;
and International Association for Cultural Freedom, 184
Cecchi, Emilio: Bitter America, 34
Centro Democratico della Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, 176
Centro Studi di Politica Economica, 251
CERM (Centre d'Etudes et des Recherches Marxistes), 286;
as Institute de Recherches Marxistes, 362
CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), 14, 27, 84, 105, 153, 254, 392;
and European integration, 216;
and Marshall Plan, 95, 116;
and Opening to the Left, 240–41;
and pacifism, 125, 143–44
CGT (Confédération générale du travail), 14, 25, 84, 91, 225, 254, 373, 392;
and Marshall Plan, 95, 116;
and May 1968 movement, 280;
and pacifism, 125, 426 (n. 14)
Chambers, Whittaker, 59
Chaplin, Charlie, 95, 135, 172, 191, 437 (n. 82)
Chastenet, Jean-Louis: Uncle Shylock, 34
Chiaromonte, Gerardo, 260, 262, 263
Chiaromonte, Nicola, 159, 184
Chile, 93, 305, 316, 322
China, 81, 203, 214, 221, 240, 257, 259, 266, 307, 317, 355, 389;
Cultural Revolution in, 272, 275, 279;
and de Gaulle, 268;
and détente, 330;
and France, 327;
and PCF, 327;
and Vietnam War, 258, 259–60. See also Sino-Soviet split
Chipman, Norris, 73
Chirac, Jacques, 381
Chombart de Lauwe, Marie-José, 349
Chomsky, Noam, 292
Chou En-Lai, 327
Christian Left Party (Italy), 27
Chrysler, 251
Church Committee, 325
Churchill, Winston, 63, 64, 209, 221
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency): and CCF, 184–86, 393;
and “Civic Action,” 222, 393;
and economic recovery in Italy, 89, 91;
and Eurocommunism, 331, 336;
and European integration, 139;
and France, 227, 325–26, 392;
and insurrection in France and Italy, 97;
interventions in Italy, 102, 107–8, 222, 238–39, 269, 279, 282, 284, 298, 390, 392
CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations), 67, 105–6, 146, 414 (n. 40)
CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), 144, 146
Civil rights movement, 11, 193–94, 292–93, 325, 384;
and Marxism, 293;
PCF's view of, 319, 384;
PCI's view of, 293, 319, 384;
and students, 274;
and U.S. liberal intellectuals, 292
Classe operaia, 278
Claude, Henri, 247
Clay, Lucius, 74
Clayton, William, 75
Clemenceau, Georges, 44
Cleveland, Harlan, 87, 418 (n. 2)
Clinton, Bill, 379, 390
Cohen, Roger, 397
Cohn-Bendit, Daniel, 274, 279, 282
Colby, William, 222
Colletti, Lucio, 366
Collettivo delle Compagne del Gruppo Comunicazioni Rivoluzionarie di Torino, 351
Colombi, Emilio, 246, 305, 312, 322
Combat, 424 (n. 95)
Combattants de la Paix, 122
(p.513) Cominform, 51, 85, 87, 92, 104, 130, 131, 142, 156, 188;
end of, 200;
founding of, 91;
and Marshall Plan, 95–96;
and paci-fist campaign, 122, 126;
and realism in culture, 162
Comitato Amministrativo Soccorsi ai Senzatetto, 110
Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, 17
Comité de Liaison des Etudiants Révolutionnaires, 179
Committee of Intellectuals for a Europe of Freedoms, 366
Common Council of American Unity, 174
Communism: in Eastern Europe, 4, 27, 91, 93, 302, 308–9, 371, 375, 377;
Communist International Conferences: Berlin (1976), 313;
Brussels (1974), 312;
of eighty-one parties, 257, 309;
of Europe of Six, 217;
of Mediterranean parties, 260;
Moscow (1969), 308;
of sixty-eight parties, 212;
of Western parties, 305
Communist Party of Germany, 69
Communist Party of Poland, 69
Communist youth/youth federations: in France, 22, 277, 283, 300, 308, 356;
in Italy, 259–60, 265, 277, 279, 284, 300, 354
Confédération générale du Patronat Fran-çais, 91
Confederazione Italiana Femminile, 110
Congresses for Peace and Christian Civilization, 133
Constitutional Assembly (Italy), 26–27
Consumerism: in France, 244, 248–49, 255, 285, 378, 387–88;
in U.S., 40, 41, 193, 246–47;
in Western Europe, 5, 8, 11, 244, 334, 358, 386–87
Contemporaneo, Il, 289
Cooper, Gary, 172
Copeland, Aaron, 437 (n. 82)
Coppi, Fausto, 172
Corbino, Epicarmo, 84
Corriere della Sera, 312, 359
Corsini, Gianfranco, 190, 241, 271, 289, 438 (n. 97)
Costa-Gavras, Constantin, 304
Counterculture: in France, 290–91, 356–58, 387;
in Germany, 290–91;
in Italy, 288, 290–91, 354, 357–58, 387;
“transatlantic,” 273, 357–58, 378–79, 387–88;
Courtade, Pierre, 46, 93–94, 272
CPUSA (Communist Party of the United States), 28, 78, 94, 325
Craxi, Bettino, 343, 367, 369, 374
Critica marxista, 374
Croce, Benedetto, 21, 24, 31–32, 48, 55, 181, 183
Croizat, Ambroise, 25
Cronache Sociali, 115
Cronkite, Walter, 296
Cuadernos, 436 (n. 71)
Cuba, 193, 266, 308, 375;
missile crisis in, 238, 277
Cucchi, Aldo, 130, 187
Czechoslovakia, 311;
and Marshall Plan, 91;
1948 coup in, 83, 107. See also Prague Spring
Daix, Pierre, 286, 362
Daladier, Edouard, 128
D'Alema, Massimo, 354, 355
Dallas, 379
Dandieu, Arnaud: Le cancer américain, 35
D'Attorre, Pier Paolo, 196
Davis, Angela, 319–20
DC (Democrazia Cristiana), 20, 21, 393;
anti-American groups in, 20, 115;
cooperation with PCI, 298, 343;
and economic/social reform, 233–34, 243, 250, 254, 352;
and Eurocommunism, 315, 343, 345;
and European integration, 132;
factionalism in, 328, 339;
left-wing factions of, 155, 221, 343;
and mass culture, 165–66;
and NATO summits, 346;
and 1948 elections, 103–10;
and 1953 elections, 149–51, 152;
and 1958 elections, 222;
and 1975 elections, 328;
(p.514) and 1976 elections, 336;
and Opening to the Left, 211, 216, 222, 233, 239, 242–43;
pacifism in, 133, 238, 265, 267–68, 269, 270, 384;
as Partito Popolare, 20, 74;
right-wing factions of, 232, 233, 345;
and U.S. culture, 49, 68;
U.S. influence welcomed by, 34, 116, 239, 332–33, 345;
U.S. pressures resisted by, 20, 24, 113, 119, 134, 153–54, 155, 202, 243, 343, 384, 395;
Dean, James, 172, 276
Debray, Régis, 266, 293
De Chirico, Giorgio, 189
De Gasperi, Alcide, 1, 21, 143, 213, 231;
and expulsion of PCI from government, 82–85;
and NATO, 119, 221, 431–32 (n. 92);
and 1948 elections, 101–2, 104–10 passim;
and 1953elections, 149, 150–51, 152;
and U.S. aid, 39, 40, 68, 76–77, 93;
U.S. influence resisted by, 67, 152–54;
U.S. influence welcomed by, 20, 61, 427 (n. 23)
De Gaulle, Charles, 8, 14, 18, 36, 38, 46, 117, 130, 231, 270, 321, 393, 395, 402 (n. 1), 412 (n. 14);
anti-Americanism of, 65, 66–67, 154, 268;
and Arab-Israeli conflict, 257;
and détente, 268;
and European integration, 217, 229, 232, 252, 255, 263;
and grandeur, 256, 265;
nationalism of, 20–22, 134, 212, 229;
and NATO, 256, 261;
and 1958 crisis, 228–29;
PCF's attacks on, 232–33, 249, 250, 252, 253, 261, 308;
resignation of, 300, 413 (n. 37);
and Soviet Union, 38, 62, 71;
U.S. influence resisted by, 134, 251, 264;
U.S. influence welcomed by, 19, 20, 61–62;
and Vietnam War, 258, 261, 264, 268;
and youth movements, 268, 284, 298
De Giovanni, Biagio, 365
De Grazia, Victoria, 246
De Léon, Daniel, 33
Della Volpe, Galvano, 293
Del Pero, Mario, 153
De Man, Paul, 375
Democratic Party (U.S.), 57, 205, 237, 344, 368, 369
Démocratie nouvelle, 237, 246, 276
Deneuve, Catherine, 348
Denis, Jacques, 323
De Pauw, Cornelius, 33
Der Monat, 184
Derrida, Jacques, 363, 375
De Sanctis, Francesco, 48
De Sica, Vittorio, 79, 80;
Sciuscià, 79
Dewey, John, 183
Diggins, John Patrick, 78
Dillon, Douglas, 148, 149, 227, 228
DiMaggio, Joe, 101, 172
Dimitrov, Georgi, 37, 232
Dion, Michel, 364
Diplomatic intervention. See United States
Disney, Walt, 174, 452 (n. 87)
Di Vittorio, Giuseppe, 106, 133, 240
Dolivet, Louis, 424 (n. 95)
Domenach, Jean-Marie, 195–96, 252, 287, 358, 362
Dominican Republic, 260
Donovan, William, 139
Dos Passos, John, 44, 190
Dossetti, Giuseppe, 115
Douglas, Lewis W., 118
Douglass, Frederick, 292
Dowling, Walter, 69, 77, 78, 83
Dozza, Giuseppe, 116
Droit, Michel, 177
Dub ek, Alexander, 303–4, 375
Dubinski, David, 414 (n. 40)
Duclos, Jacques, 70, 95, 130, 419 (n. 30);
arrest of, 144, 145, 153
Duhamel, Georges: America the Menace, 34, 36, 43
Dulles, Allen, 139, 142, 221, 222–23, 227, 231
Dulles, John Foster, 134, 147, 154, 201, 205, 220, 236, 430 (n. 78);
and European integration, 149, 152, 213;
and French 1958 crisis, 227–29
Dumont, Yvonne, 347
Dunn, James Clement, 65, 119, 180;
and CCF, 181;
(p.515) and elections in Italy, 102–10, passim;
and expulsion of PCI from government, 83–84;
and interim aid to Italy, 98;
and Marshall Plan, 97, 115;
in Paris, 219–20;
and psywar, 77, 141, 142, 145
Durante, Jimmy, 101
Duras, Marguerite, 348
Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste, 178
Dylan, Bob, 271
Eastman, Max, 59
Eastwood, Clint, 379
Eccles, Marriner, 75, 76
Eco, Umberto, 278, 287, 376, 381
Economic Cooperation Administration. See Marshall Plan
EDC (European Defense Community), 10, 120–21, 128, 131, 132, 134, 139, 152, 154, 212, 213–14, 218–19, 384, 395
Egypt, 197, 223, 231–32. See also Suez crisis
Ehrenburg, Ilya, 135
Einaudi, Luigi, 98, 106
Einstein, Albert, 135, 437 (n. 82)
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 160;
and “Atoms for Peace,” 208, 209–10;
and “Chance for Peace,” 208–9;
and cultural cold war, 161, 180;
and decolonization, 223;
and de Gaulle, 62, 213, 395;
and domino fears, 203;
Eisenhower Doctrine, 224, 226, 235;
and European integration, 149, 151–52, 213–14, 219, 234;
and exceptionalism, 235–36;
as general in World War II, 19, 20, 46, 130;
and Italian diplomacy, 230–31;
and Italy (post-war), 66;
and McCarthyism, 148, 206;
and New Look, 151–52;
and “Open Skies,” 208, 210;
and psywar, 137, 146–47;
and psywar diplomatic measures, 201–2, 207–10, 235–36, 394, 439 (n. 3);
as Supreme Commander of NATO, 119, 126, 149
Eisenhower administration: assistance to France, 154;
and French 1958 crisis, 229;
and propaganda, 208–10;
and psywar, 146–56 passim, 160, 176–77, 295
Elbrick, C. Burke, 176
Eliot, T. S., 191
Ellenstein, Jean, 314, 315
Ellwood, David W., 89, 418 (n. 2)
Eluard, Paul, 437 (n. 82)
Emerson, Ralph, 42
Encounter, 183, 184
Enlightenment, 29, 48, 57
Environmentalism, 371
Esprit, 29, 30, 31, 114, 170, 183, 383
Eurocommunism, 10, 302, 338;
and anti-Americanism, 303, 311, 316–20;
and Berlinguer, 311, 312–13, 316, 317, 325;
and Eastern Europe, 319–20, 330, 339, 345, 346, 370;
explained to U.S. public, 337, 343;
and intellectuals, 315, 361, 366;
and PCE, 312–13, 316;
and PCF, 312–16, 321, 462 (n. 67);
summits of, 312–13;
and Third World, 315, 318. See also Historic Compromise; United States
Euro Disneyland, 381
European Atomic Energy Community, 213, 216, 217
European Community Movement, 179
European Economic Community, 213
European integration, 64, 113–14, 139. See also EDC; France; Italy; Marshall Plan; PCF; PCI; United States
European Recovery Plan (ERP). See Marshall Plan
European Youth Campaign, 139
Exceptionalism (U.S.), 4, 7, 53, 58, 81, 86, 152, 184, 185–86, 234, 235, 236, 237, 291, 317, 382–83, 392–93, 395, 397
Existentialism, 29–30, 50;
and counter-culture, 287;
and Marxism, 30;
and PCF, 54, 186;
and Soviet Union, 54;
and U.S. intellectuals, 50, 183, 199. See also Sartre, Jean-Paul
Express, L', 369
Fajon, Etienne, 314, 433 (n. 25)
Fanfani, Amintore, 115, 221–22, 230–32, 254;
and Opening to the Left, 233, 240, 241;
and PCI, 233, 328, 343;
and U.S. hegemony, 231, 234, 332
Fanon, Frantz: The Wretched of the Earth, 266
(p.516) Farrel, James T., 181
Fascism: and anti-Americanism, 34, 35, 41, 42, 43;
in Italy, 15, 17, 24, 26, 32
Fassino, Piero, 377
Fast, Howard, 95, 135
Faulkner, William, 42, 44, 135, 271
Favaro, Roland, 308, 356, 357
Fellini, Federico, 274, 342, 360;
La dolce vita, 253
Feminism: and abortion laws, 348, 351–52;
in Europe, 376;
in France, 194, 292, 347–48;
in Italy, 195, 292, 350–52;
and pacifism, 347–48, 350;
and PCF, 194–95, 292, 347–49, 350;
and PCI, 194–95, 292, 350–53, 371;
in U.S., 11, 325, 347, 349–50, 352
Feste de L'Unità, 164, 165, 285, 358
Fête de L'Humanité, 164, 169
FIAT, 37, 76, 84, 153, 155, 254
Figaro, Le, 177
Figuères, Léo, 258, 286, 314
Fioravanti, Mike, 194
Fiszbin, Henri, 315
Fiterman, Charles, 375
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 45
FLN (Front de Libération Nationale), 225, 275
Flores, Marcello, 55
Fo, Dario, 288
Forcella, Enzo, 358
Force Ouvrière, 96, 100, 144
Ford, Gerald, 330, 332, 334, 335, 462 (n. 85);
administration, 328, 336
Ford, Henry, 40–41, 45;
and Fordism, 43, 247, 249, 252. See also Gramsci, Antonio
Ford Foundation, 175, 179, 184
Foreign Affairs, 337
Foreign Assistance Coordinating Committee, 117
Foreign Leader Program, 177, 178, 392–93
Foreign Policy, 337
Forrestal, James, 108
Fortini, Franco, 199
Forum, 436 (n. 71)
Foster, William Z., 95
Foucault, Michel, 363, 365, 376
Fraleigh, William, 297
France, 2, 19, 21;
bourgeoisie in, 17–19;
and China, 327;
and decolonization, 205, 223–24;
and economic downturn in 1970s, 302, 315, 334, 347;
economic growth in, 249, 265;
and European integration, 114, 118, 120–21, 134, 213, 218–19, 238, 394;
exceptionalism in, 32, 55;
Fourth Republic of, 143, 220, 227–29, 395;
and Franco-Soviet Treaty of 1944, 38, 39, 62, 70, 71, 72;
and German rearmament, 121, 131;
and G-7, 334;
and Historic Compromise in Italy, 333–34, 339–41, 343;
and insurrection in, 98;
and Italian elections, 102, 107;
Marshall Plan in, 87–101 passim, 110–17;
national identity of, 14–15, 36;
nationalism in, 131–33, 144, 153, 154, 176, 212, 394–95;
and NATO, 212, 214–15, 223–24, 260, 373;
neutralism in, 114, 119, 131–32, 133, 134–36, 143, 145, 148, 170, 201, 202, 203, 204, 219, 227, 340, 344, 383, 392;
1946 elections in, 25;
1947 elections in, 91, 97;
1951 elections in, 130, 132;
1958 crisis in, 227–29;
1958 elections in, 232;
1968 elections in, 284, 298;
1978 elections in, 324, 346;
1981 elections in, 324;
and Opening to the Left in Italy, 241–42;
partitocracy in, 73, 143;
postwar reconstruction of, 13, 75, 76;
prestige and, 63, 64, 214, 218–19;
psychological impact of World War II in, 44, 53, 59;
Soviet myth in, 53, 54, 388;
Third Republic of, 31, 61;
U.S. myth in, 53;
France nouvelle, 167, 362
Franco, Francisco, 317
Frankfurt School, 278, 365, 376
Free Trade Union Committee, 184
French Revolution: legacy of, 14, 19, 22, 29, 36, 37, 44, 55, 180, 363, 378, 404 (n. 17)
Friedman, Georges, 43
(p.517) Friedman, Thomas, 389
Frost, Robert, 45
Fulbright, William J., 80–81, 86, 292, 296–97, 392
Furet, François: Penser la Revolution française, 378
Futurism, 409 (n. 82)
Gable, Clark, 172, 452 (n. 87)
Gaja, Roberto, 345
Galbraith, John Kenneth: American Capitalism, 192
Galluzzi, Carlo, 284, 304, 309
Garaudy, Roger, 26, 33, 49–50, 270;
and anti-Americanism, 130;
and Catholics, 261, 278–79;
Le grand tournant du socialisme, 286, 307;
and Marxism, 31, 55, 290;
and Soviet Union, 187, 199, 287, 305, 307, 432 (n. 12);
in U.S., 289–90
García Lorca, Federico, 190
Gardner, Richard, 341–43, 344, 345, 395, 463 (n. 91)
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 106
Garibaldi Brigades, 19, 27
Gauchisme, 278, 280, 357, 364;
ex-, 356, 369, 370
Gay rights: in France and Italy, 349, 376, 380
Gedda, Luigi: and civic committees, 104, 176
General Electric, 251
Geneva Summit (1955), 210
Genscher, Hans-Dietrich, 333
Gentile, Emilio, 21
Germany: during World War II, 15, 16
Germany, East, 131, 133, 263;
and Berlin crisis, 257
Germany, West, 240, 241;
and Berlin crisis, 257;
and European integration, 114, 133, 213, 252;
and Historic Compromise in Italy, 333–35, 340–41, 345;
and Marshall Plan, 93, 94, 100;
in NATO, 209, 210;
postwar, 10, 61, 68, 72, 74, 76, 79, 82, 416 (n. 71);
and rearmament, 121, 123, 128, 131, 215, 218–19, 220, 238;
Social Democratic Party in, 242, 333, 334–35, 395. See also Eurocommunism
Geymonant, Ludovico, 190
Gide, André, 29, 406 (n. 47), 407 (n. 49)
Gingembre, Léon, 113
Ginsberg, Allen, 190
Giolitti, Antonio, 23, 199
Giordani, Igino, 133
Giovane critica, 277
Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry, 321, 334, 336, 338, 345, 346, 348, 368
Gitlin, Todd, 6
Globalization, 360, 388–90, 396
Glucksmann, André, 287, 363, 377–78
Godard, Jean-Luc, 274, 289;
A bout de souffle, 253
God That Failed, The, 181
Goldberg, Arthur, 414 (n. 40)
Goldring, Maurice, 315
Goodman, Paul, 271, 277
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 370, 377;
and perestroika, 371, 375
Gorz, André, 287, 378
Graham, Billy, 59
Gramsci, Antonio, 15, 55, 163, 189, 363, 455 (n. 129);
and cultural hegemony, 29, 32–33, 157, 303, 364–65;
and feminism, 351;
and Fordism, 40–42, 247, 296;
and organic intellectuals, 37, 48, 280;
and theory of bureaucracy, 24, 27
Gramsci Institute, 191, 250, 251, 287
Grand Alliance, 10, 13, 18, 37, 38, 39, 47, 49, 50, 92;
end of, 82
Grand Hôtel, 168
Gray, Gordon, 141
Graziani, Rodolfo, 126
Graziano, Rocky, 101
Great Britain, 19, 63, 93, 172, 231;
and détente, 221;
and European integration, 114, 238, 252, 263, 313–14;
and insurrection in Italy, 99;
and Italian elections, 107, 109;
Labor Party in, 239, 241, 242;
and Opening to the Left in Italy, 239, 241
Greece, 143, 282, 316, 332
Green, William, 414 (n. 40)
Greene, Graham: The Quiet American, 317
Greshman, Carl, 377
Grew, Joseph, 66
(p.518) Gronchi, Giovanni, 115, 155, 221, 222, 224, 230, 231
Groussard, Serge, 177
“Gruppo ′63,” 278, 280, 287
G-7 organization, 335–36, 345, 392, 394;
as G-5, 315;
as G-6, 333–35;
Puerto Rico summit, 335, 344;
Rambouillet summit, 333, 341, 344
Guadeloupe summit, 346
Guatemala, 247
Guernica, 189
Guevara, Ernesto “Che,” 266, 275, 279, 358
Gundle, Stephen, 11, 29, 165, 244, 410 (n. 107)
Guttuso, Renato, 189, 342, 437 (n. 82)
Habermas, Jürgen, 376
Halimi, Gisèle, 348
Hamilton, Alexander, 56
Harlem Renaissance, 293
Harper, John L., 82
Harriman, Averell W., 143, 239, 241
Hassner, Pierre, 339–40
Hawk, Howard: Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, 170
Hayden, Tom, 271
H-bomb, 207
Heidegger, Martin, 50, 365
Helsinki conference, 314
Hemingway, Ernest, 42, 44, 45, 47, 48, 271
Hervé, Pierre, 38, 49
Hervé (Colonel), 174
Herz, Martin F., 218–19, 220, 221, 230
Hickerson, John D., 76, 100, 118, 219
Historic Compromise (DC-PCI), 301, 322–23, 324–25, 328, 335–36, 343–45, 350, 354, 355, 368;
and Berlinguer, 322–23, 325;
and intellectuals, 366;
and U.S., 328–46 passim
Hitler, Adolf, 94
Hixson, Walter, 143
Ho Chi Minh, 224, 258, 265, 266
Hoffman, Paul G., 89
Hofstadter, Richard, 53, 179;
Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, 179–80
Hogan, Michael, 117, 418 (n. 3)
Hollywood/film industry, 35, 43, 77, 79, 103, 111, 158, 173–74, 360, 416 (n. 71), 433 (n. 28);
decline of, in Europe, 175, 289
Holmes, Julius, 223
Hook, Sidney, 181
Horkheimer, Max, 290
“Hot Autumn of 1969,” 276, 280, 354, 355, 386
Houghton, Emory, 229
HUAC (House Committee on Un-American Activities), 28, 325
Hughes, Emmet J., 235
Humanism: in France, 252–53;
in Italy, 31, 32, 252–53, 365
Humanitè, L', 22, 25, 93–94, 111, 135, 173, 233, 270, 319, 361;
L'Humanitè dimanche, 165, 167, 172, 362;
revision of, 167, 433 (n. 25)
Human relations management, 246, 253–54
Human rights (Eastern Bloc), 266;
and France, 338;
and French intellectuals, 266, 286–87, 356, 362–64;
and Germany, 338;
and Italian intellectuals, 365, 377;
and PCF, 300, 356, 361–64;
and PCI, 300, 355, 364–65, 377;
and U.S., 318, 337, 338
Hungary, 92, 263;
1956 events in, 70, 197–98, 226, 234, 235, 303, 309
Hunt, Michael H., 402 (n. 19)
Hunter, Robert, 340–41, 346, 465 (n. 125)
Huston, John, 95
Idealism, 48, 55
ILGWU (International Ladies Garment Workers Union), 67, 100, 414 (n. 40)
Imbeni, Claudio, 312, 354
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 335, 337, 341, 343, 344, 345, 390
Indochina. See Vietnam
Ingrao, Pietro, 200, 259, 312;
and intellectuals, 288;
meeting with Mondale, 343;
and U.S. culture, 43;
and youth movements, 279, 387
International Confederation of Trade Unions, 184
Iran, 204, 247, 368
IRBMs (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles), 231, 373–74
Ireland, 103
IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale), 73
Israel, 231, 260, 265, 332
Italian American Labor Council, 68
Italy, 2, 20, 21;
bourgeoisie in, 17, 18, 19;
contacts with U.S.S.R., 71–72;
and decolonization, 67, 106, 143, 223–24;
economic downturn in 1970s, 302, 315, 334, 347;
economic growth in, 249, 265;
and European integration, 114, 120–21, 134, 214, 232, 394;
and G-7 agreements, 335–36, 344–45;
Marshall Plan in, 87–101 passim, 110–17;
and Mediterranean vocation, 143, 223–24, 230–32, 265, 270, 331;
monarchy in, 19;
national identity of, 14–15, 32, 33, 37;
nationalism in, 67, 131–33, 153, 176, 212, 221;
neutralism in, 118, 119, 131–32, 134–36, 145, 202, 219, 221–22, 224, 230–31, 238, 239, 340, 341, 344, 383, 392;
1946 elections in, 27;
1948 elections in, 91, 101–10;
1951 elections in, 132;
1953 elections in, 148–49, 150–51;
1958 elections in, 222;
1963 elections in, 242;
1976 elections in, 336;
1979 elections in, 346;
partitocracy in, 73, 230;
and peace treaty, 40, 65, 119;
postwar democracy in, 31;
postwar reconstruction of, 13, 75, 76;
prestige and, 62, 64, 67, 107, 214, 223–24, 231–32, 270, 332, 333–34;
psychological impact of World War II in, 44, 53, 59;
Soviet myth in, 37, 40, 53, 55, 388;
and Trieste dispute, 65, 67, 107, 214;
and U.N., 119, 214;
U.S. myth in, 37, 40, 41, 53;
Jackson, C. D., 146, 148, 205, 241
Jacobinism, 22, 23
James, Henry, 45
Japan, 61, 203
Jaspers, Karl, 183, 365
Jernegan, John, 239
Joan of Arc, 19, 21
John Paul II (Pope), 346
Johns Hopkins University, Bologna Center, 178–79
Johnson, Lyndon B., 267, 270, 289, 293, 295;
administration, 260
Johnston, Eric, 28
John XXIII (Pope), 241
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric, 122, 131, 187, 437 (n. 82)
Jordan, 231
Jotti, Nilde, 350–51, 467 (n. 21)
Jouaux, Léon, 96
Joyce, Robert P., 179
Judt, Tony, 30, 32, 198
Julien, Claude: Le nouveau Nouveau monde, 246
Kampelman, Max, 377
Kanapa, Jean, 314, 316, 322, 337, 362
Keaton, Buster, 172, 453 (n. 87)
Kennan, George F., 1–4, 56, 57, 58, 207;
and CCF, 182;
and European integration, 100, 219;
and Italy (postwar), 66, 69;
and Long Telegram, 57, 78;
and Marshall Plan, 74, 88, 394;
and psywar, 78;
views of American society, 2–4, 159;
views of Western European Communism, 2–3, 391;
and youth movements, 294–95
Kennedy, John F., 223, 269, 295;
and European integration, 238;
myth of, 237, 271;
(p.520) and Opening to the Left in Italy, 241–43, 447 (n. 122);
and PCF, 271;
and PCI, 238, 271
Kennedy, Robert, 289, 292, 296
Kennedy administration, 213, 237–43, 295;
and Flexible Response, 238;
and Multilateral Force, 238;
and Opening to the Left in Italy, 238–43
Kesselring, Albert, 126
Khrushchev, Nikita, 188, 196, 197, 248, 303;
visit to U.S., 236
Kiesinger, Kurt Georg, 263, 333
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 292–93
King in New York, A, 172
Kirilenko, Andrej, 309
Kirk, Alexander, 65, 66
Kirkpatrick, Jeanne, 57, 377
Kissinger, Henry: and de Gaulle, 298, 327;
and détente, 317, 330, 394;
and Eisenhower administration, 235;
and Euro-communism, 331, 335–36, 337, 368, 394;
and European integration, 330, 394;
and European politics, 341, 347, 391;
and French politics, 325–27, 333, 335;
and German Social Democrats, 333–35, 345;
and Historic Compromise, 327, 328, 330–31, 332–33, 334–35, 336, 345;
and Italian prestige, 332;
PCI's view of, 336–37, 368, 470 (n. 74);
views of U.S. society, 159
Koestler, Arthur, 181
Komer, Robert W., 239, 240, 395
Korean War, 108, 117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 125–27, 130, 176, 209, 426 (n. 5)
Kosygin, Aleksei, 308
Kravchenko, Victor, 187
Kriegel, Annie, 17, 96, 166, 233
Kristeva, Julia, 287, 363
Kroes, Rob, 7
Kuisel, Richard, 170, 244
Labor Newsreel, 174
Labor Party. See Great Britain
Lacan, Jacques, 349, 363
LaFollette, Suzanne, 59
Lang, Jack, 360, 381
Lange, Peter, 337
Laniel, Joseph, 149, 152, 154
La Pira, Giorgio, 115, 269;
and pacifism, 133, 226, 238, 265, 375, 384, 441 (n. 25);
and Vietnam, 267–68
Laski, Melvin, 184
Lavau, Georges, 381
Lazar, Marc, 402 (n. 2), 403 (n. 5)
LCGIL (Libera Confederazione Gene-rale Italiana del Lavoro), 96, 100
Leaves of Grass, 190
Lebanon, 231, 235
Lecoeur, Auguste, 125, 126–27, 129, 189
Ledda, Romano, 287
Lefebvre, Henri, 50
Lefort, Claude, 287, 363
Lefranc, Pierre, 248
Léger, Fernand, 437 (n. 82)
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 248, 296, 355
Leone, Giovanni, 331, 332
Le Pen, Jean-Marie, 373
Leroy, Roland, 277, 308, 356
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel, 199
Letters to Italy campaign, 103, 104
Lettres françaises, Les, 46, 49, 172, 187, 188, 278, 286, 291, 410 (n. 97), 432 (n. 12);
termination of, 361
Lévy, Bernard-Henri, 362, 378
Lewis, John, 292
Lewis, Sinclair, 42
Liaison des Etudiants Anarchistes, 179
Libération, 357
Lincoln, Abraham, 272
Lippman, Walter, 2
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 185, 192, 393
Lister, George, 239
Lockheed scandal, 318
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., 201
Lollobrigida, Gina, 164
Lombardi, Riccardo, 267, 328
London, Arthur, 304, 361
Longo, Luigi, 37, 95, 96, 215, 263, 264, 418 (n. 29);
and Prague Spring, 304, 306;
and student movement, 265, 284;
and U.S. society, 289
Lotta Continua, 279, 354, 355, 455 (n. 119)
Lotta Femminista, 350
Lovestone, Jay, 68
(p.521) Luce, Clare Boothe: and anti-Americanism in Europe, 207, 219, 230;
and Christian Democrats, 153–54, 155, 214, 221, 222, 232, 233;
and European integration, 213–14;
and Italian elections, 148–49;
and neutralism in Europe, 220–21;
and psywar, 148, 152–53, 155, 193–94, 243;
resigns post, 230;
supports Monarchists, 222;
targeted by PCI, 149, 211;
and Trieste, 213;
and U.S. cultural cold war, 160, 180, 185, 205
Luce, Henry, 148, 232
Lukács, Georg, 455 (n. 129)
Luxembourg, 120
Luxemburg, Rosa, 455 (n. 129)
Lysenko, Trofim/Lysenkoism, 162, 188
Macaluso, Emanuele, 343
Mac-Arthur, Douglas, II, 84
Macdonald, Dwight, 159, 182
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 366
Machines Bull, 251
Mafai, Miriam, 23
Magnani, Anna, 164
Magnani, Valdo, 130, 142, 187
Magri, Lucio, 288, 339
Maier, Charles, 75, 117, 295, 418 (n. 7)
Mailer, Norman, 437 (n. 82)
Malcolm X, 292
Malenkov, Georgii, 151, 209, 211
Malraux, André, 288, 294, 406 (n. 47)
Mancini, Giacomo, 328
Manifesto group, 288, 299, 305, 307, 354
Manzini, Raimondo, 315, 336–37
Mao Zedong, 296, 358
Maoism, 259, 266;
in France, 275, 279, 363;
in Italy, 275, 279, 288
Maraini, Dacia: Age of Malaise, 287
Marchais, Georges, 259, 305, 371, 372, 375;
and Eurocommunism, 312–14, 460 (n. 41);
and feminism, 349;
and neo-Marxism, 286;
and youth movements, 282, 357
Marcinkus, Paul, 328
Marcuse, Herbert: One-Dimensional Man, 3, 286, 290, 363, 455 (n. 129)
Maritain, Jacques, 183
Marshall, George C., 89, 99, 105, 111, 148
Marshall Plan, 75, 78, 86, 87–101, 123, 159, 383, 391, 394;
end of, 117;
and Keynesian reform, 110, 394;
and productivity drives, 110–11, 113, 125, 244, 334;
propaganda of, 89–90, 110–16, 125, 138, 140–41, 182, 183, 244
Martin, Graham, 328
Marty, André, 38, 130
Marxism/Marxism-Leninism, 28, 30, 31, 32, 93, 185, 225, 278, 361, 376, 378;
and Bebel, 349;
and Engels, 349;
and Marx, 349, 355, 377;
neo-Marxism, 41, 42, 281, 285–86, 296, 364, 365, 388
Mass culture: in France, 158, 171, 244, 289, 359–60;
in Italy, 164, 168, 244, 254, 358–60;
U.S. transmission of, 79–80, 157–58, 169–70, 172–77, 182, 271, 297, 360, 378–79, 392–93;
in Western Europe, 8, 244, 297, 378–79. See also PCF; PCI; Youth culture
Mass Theater (PCI), 164
Mattei, Enrico/ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi), 203–4, 224, 231
Mauriac, François, 266
Mauroy, Pierre, 373
Mayakovski, Vladimir, 190
Mayer, Frank, 59
Mayer, René, 152
May 1968 movement, 276, 280, 281–84, 294, 297, 298, 363
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 34, 55
McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, 422 (n. 62)
McCarthy, Frank, 111
McCarthyism, 58, 78, 172, 179, 186, 191, 205, 384;
and McCarthy, 148
McCone, John, 462 (n. 85)
McCormack, Richard, 340–41, 344
McPherson, James, 376
Mediterranean vocation. See Italy
Menabò, 188, 287
Menand, Louis, 297
Mendès-France, Pierre, 25, 134, 154, 201, 220, 299
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 30, 54
(p.522) Miceli, Vito, 328
Mieli, Renato, 210
Miller, Arthur, 190, 437 (n. 82)
Miller, James E., 146, 421 (n. 57)
Mills, Charles Wright: The Power Elite, 192, 277
Minganti, Franco, 171
Missoffe, François, 274
Mitterrand, François, 242, 252, 268, 270, 318, 334, 371;
attacked by PCF, 362, 372;
common program/government with PCF, 299, 321–22, 324, 326–27, 336, 339–40, 367, 369, 371, 381;
and U.S., 336, 339, 340, 345, 369, 374
Moch, Jules, 95, 118, 227
Modernization: in France, 244, 249–50, 251, 252–53, 255–56, 352, 382;
in Italy, 245, 249–51, 252–53, 255, 262, 352, 382;
theory of, 204, 223, 238, 295, 317;
in Western Europe, 4–8, 11, 35, 36, 80, 88
Mollet, Guy, 225, 229, 241, 242, 267
Molotov, Vyacheslav M., 134, 211
Mondale, Walter, 343
Monde, Le, 114, 170, 177, 312, 366, 369, 424 (n. 95)
Monnet, Jean, 73, 76, 113, 114, 213
Monroe, Marilyn, 170, 271–72
Montand, Yves, 304
Moravia, Alberto, 185, 199, 266, 342, 376, 437 (n. 82)
Moreau, Jeanne, 348
Moretti, Luigi, 265
Morgan, Claude, 199
Morin, Edgar, 170
Moro, Aldo, 267;
assassination of, 324, 346;
diplomacy of, 332, 464 (n. 100);
and G-6, 334;
and Historic Compromise, 322, 324, 328, 330, 345
Morocco, 201, 228
Morrison, Jim, 358
Motion Picture Association, 174;
Motion Picture Export Association, 79
Mounier, Emmanuel, 30, 114, 198
Mouvement de Libération des Femmes, 348
Movimento di Liberazione delle Donne Italiane, 351
MRP (Mouvement Républicain Populaire), 25, 26, 68, 71, 115, 133
MTV (Music Television), 378
Multiculturalism: in Europe, 376, 381, 393;
in U.S., 297, 300, 376
Murphy, Robert, 74
Mussolini, Benito, 14, 20, 23, 34
Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 117–18, 119, 138
Mutual Security Agency, 144
Nagy, Imre, 377
Napolitano, Giorgio, 260, 284, 311, 337, 343, 365, 366, 375, 379, 397
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 223, 224, 226, 231, 235
Nation, The, 292
National Committee for a Free Europe, 139
National Committee of Writers (France), 28
National Review, 59, 296
National Security Council, 89, 103, 141, 422 (n. 66);
and Italian elections, 107, 336;
NSC 1/1 and 1/2, 99;
NSC 5411/2, 149;
NSC 68, 138, 238;
and psywar, 146
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 10, 100, 110, 117, 118, 119, 123–24, 128, 138;
Article 2 of, 119, 134, 431–32 (n. 92)
Natoli, Aldo, 288
Natta, Alessandro, 336, 371, 377
Nazism, 181
Nazzari, Amedeo, 164
Negarville, Celeste, 92, 441 (n. 25)
Nenni, Pietro, 26, 27, 39, 68, 267, 409 (n. 80);
and China, 269;
and nationalism, 212;
and neutralism, 224, 226, 240;
and 1948 elections, 105;
and Opening to the Left, 240, 242–43;
and pacifism, 123, 125, 126;
and PCF, 70;
and Vietnam, 267
Neo-Atlanticism, 221, 224, 230
Neorealism (Italy), 43, 80, 111, 278, 288, 416 (n. 74);
and Commedia all'italiana, 175, 276
Neruda, Pablo, 190
Netherlands, 120
(p.523) Neutralism: in Third World, 204, 209, 231, 333, 385;
in Western Europe, 220–21, 237, 333, 334, 340, 344, 345, 427 (n. 30). See also France; Italy
New International Economic Order, 335
New Deal: model of, in France, 75, 193;
model of, in Italy, 39, 40, 75, 169, 193
New Left, 259, 290, 294, 296, 351;
in France and Italy, 276, 286–87;
New Left historians, 295
New Look strategy, 147, 151–52, 203, 207, 209
New Masses, 407 (n. 54)
New Philosophers, 362–63
New Republic, The, 377
Newsweek, 173
New York Times, 196
Nicaragua, 368
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 36, 57–58, 181
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 365
Ninkovich, Frank, 82, 402 (n. 19)
Nitze, Paul, 56, 139
Nixon, Richard M., 282, 311, 317, 318, 325, 330, 332, 370, 394, 438 (n. 95)
Nixon administration, 298, 326–27
Nobécourt, Jacques, 312
Noi Donne, 164, 168
Non-Communist Left, 181, 184, 393, 395
Nora, Pierre, 21
Nouvelle critique, La, 95, 188, 190, 247, 278, 349, 361, 362, 400 (n. 2)
Nouvelles littéraires, Les, 362
Nouvelle vague, 175, 276, 289, 297
Nouvel Observateur, Le, 348, 362, 369
Nuova Generazione, 277
Nuovi Argomenti, 183, 196–97, 383
Nuti, Leopoldo, 239
Nye, Joseph S., 401 (n. 8)
Obama, Barack, 397
Observateur, L', 183
Occhetto, Achille, 259, 264, 277, 279, 354, 371, 377
Office of Information and Cultural Affairs. See USIS
Off-Shore Procurement, 142, 153, 393
Oglesby, Carl, 289
Ojetti, Ugo, 34
Olivetti, Adriano, 179, 250
Operations Coordinating Board, 146, 149, 150, 202, 205, 394
Oppenheimer, Robert, 453 (n. 87)
Organization of European Economic Cooperation, 114
Organizzazione Epoca/Radio Epoca, 110, 115
Origins of Totalitarianism, 181
Ortona, Egidio, 330
Osgood, Kenneth, 208, 439 (n. 3)
Pace e Libertà, 139
Pacifism: in France, 122–36, 373;
in Italy, 123–36, 373–74. See also La Pira, Giorgio; PCF; PCI
Packard, Vance, 192
Paix et démocratie, 167
Pajetta, Gian Carlo, 27, 96, 211, 217, 309, 312, 368;
and DC, 265;
and Euro-communism, 315–16;
and European Socialists, 367;
and mass culture, 166–67;
and pacifist campaigns, 132, 256–57;
and Vietnam, 258;
and youth culture/movements, 276, 280, 282, 288
Palme, Olav, 313, 367
Papandreou, Georgios, 333
Paris, 32, 182
Parise, Goffredo, 266
Parisien liberé, Le, 167
Parri, Ferruccio, 71
Parsons, J. Graham, 103
Pasolini, Pier Paolo, 282, 355, 455 (n. 119);
Anger, 251
Passerini, Luisa, 351
Pastore, Ottavio, 105
Paul, Marcel, 25
Paul VI (Pope), 259, 268, 332–33
Pavese, Cesare, 42, 47, 51, 169, 275, 291, 388
PCE (Partido Comunista de España), 312–13, 316
PCF (Parti Communiste Français), 4, 396;
and Algeria, 224–25, 232;
(p.524) and ambivalent anti-Americanism, 39, 40, 43–46, 51, 171–72, 190, 271–72, 290–92, 300, 319, 381, 384–85;
and Americanization, 5–6, 135, 158, 360, 387;
and American literature, 45–46, 49–50, 190, 271;
and austerity, 314, 323, 389;
and Catholics, 25–26, 170, 261, 428 (n. 35);
clashes with PCI, 200, 252, 312, 315–16, 322, 450 (n. 55);
congresses of, 49, 189, 286, 349;
and decline of Soviet model, 310, 314–15, 361, 375, 377, 383;
and decolonization, 18, 84, 203–4, 245;
and de Gaulle, 18, 21–22, 71, 134, 232–33, 249, 252, 253, 257, 261, 284, 285, 308, 413 (n. 37);
and democratic centralism, 285, 299, 302, 307, 386–87;
and de-Stalinization, 188–89, 197–200, 211–12, 438 (n. 110);
and détente, 259, 307–8, 314, 321;
and economic reconstruction/reform, 24–25, 73, 245–56, 382;
and European integration, 101, 132, 215–17, 250, 263, 307, 309–10, 313–14, 316, 321–22, 372, 383;
and existentialism, 50, 54, 135, 186–87;
expulsion from government, 82–86;
and extraparliamentarian Left, 300, 302;
and Hungary, 197–98;
ideological section of, 157;
institutional power of, 5, 24–27, 72–73, 74, 99, 141, 143–44, 391–92;
and insurrection, 83, 95–96, 97, 98, 108, 152;
international influence of, 225, 229, 257, 268, 385;
and Marshall Plan, 87, 89–97, 123;
and mass culture, 33, 158, 164–65, 166–69, 170, 271–72, 288–89, 359, 387;
and media (radio/TV), 279, 288, 359, 372;
and middle class, 245, 303, 323–24, 391;
nationalism of, 4, 8, 21–24, 50, 60, 64, 65, 66, 96, 97, 128–33, 144, 197, 212, 216, 260;
and NATO, 260, 263, 305, 307, 316, 337, 340, 394;
and neocapitalism, 245–54, 390;
and 1956 elections, 232;
and 1958 elections, 232;
and 1962 elections, 233, 242;
and 1968 elections, 284;
and 1978 elections, 324, 346;
and 1981 elections, 324;
and pacifist campaigns, 122–36 passim, 144–45, 168, 176, 232, 257, 260, 373–74, 384–86;
and polycentrism, 200, 252, 257, 270;
in postwar government, 25–26;
relations with Soviet Union, 5, 96, 130, 211, 259, 300, 321–22, 371, 375;
and schools, 165, 169, 254, 386;
and Social Democrats in Western Europe, 313–14;
Soviet control of, 15, 22, 29, 33, 87–88, 91–92, 95–96, 122–23, 136, 217, 242, 362, 383, 385–86;
Soviet funding of, 161, 308–9;
and Soviet myth, 23, 28, 53–54, 97, 161, 165, 211–12, 248, 307;
and U.S. mass culture, 158–69, 172, 291, 349, 360, 378;
and U.S. politics in 1970s–90s, 319, 368–70;
and Vietnam War, 258–61, 263–66, 359, 362, 387;
PCI (Partito Comunista Italiano), 1;
and ambivalent anti-Americanism, 39–43, 47, 51, 171–72, 190, 271–72, 289–93, 300, 317–19, 381, 384–85;
and Americanization, 5–6, 135, 165, 168, 194, 356, 360, 379, 387;
and American literature, 42–43, 47–48, 190, 271;
(p.525) and anti-Americanism, 4, 6–11, 24, 38, 46–49, 77, 91–97, 100, 102, 109–10, 111, 123–27, 135–36, 158, 168, 186, 193–96, 203–4, 207–8, 211, 215, 226, 238, 250, 260, 264–65, 302, 305–6, 307–8, 340, 345, 346, 361, 367, 373–74, 377, 383–86, 390, 410 (n. 103), 472 (n. 3);
attacks on Christian Democrats, 49, 71, 104–5, 125, 131, 134, 158, 208, 246, 250, 254, 264–65;
and austerity, 323, 331, 335–36, 389;
and Catholics, 27, 96, 373, 374–75;
and center-left governments, 264–65;
clashes with PCF, 200, 252, 312, 315–16, 322, 450 (n. 55);
congresses of, 32, 104, 187, 199–200, 217, 269, 287–88;
cultural commission of, 157, 163, 168, 169, 188, 190, 191, 250;
and cultural hegemony, 11, 29, 32–33;
and decline of Soviet model, 310, 315, 322, 361, 368, 375, 377, 383;
and decolonization, 203–4, 225–26, 257;
and “democratic alternative,” 367;
and democratic centralism, 199, 269, 284, 297, 299, 302, 307, 313, 343, 371, 386–87;
and de-Stalinization, 188–89, 196–200, 211–12, 441 (n. 23);
and détente, 259, 261–62, 307–8, 310–11, 313, 336–37;
and “doppiezza,” 23, 64, 74;
and economic reconstruction/reform, 26–27, 73, 245–56, 323, 325, 382, 409 (n. 81);
and European integration, 101, 132–33, 215–17, 246, 260, 261–63, 307, 309–10, 315–16, 371–72, 383, 427 (n. 32);
expulsion from government, 82–86;
and extraparliamentarian Left, 199, 265, 269, 284, 300, 302, 307, 324, 350;
and Hungary, 197–98, 226, 377;
institutional power of, 5, 24–27, 72, 73, 74, 99, 141, 143–44, 152–53, 335–36, 391–92;
and insurrection, 83, 95–96, 98, 108, 284;
international influence of, 84–85, 226, 238, 241, 257, 258, 259, 261, 310–18, 330, 333, 335, 375, 385, 450 (n. 55);
and Marshall Plan, 87, 89–97, 113, 116;
and media (radio/TV), 166, 279–80, 288–89, 358–59, 379;
and middle class, 246, 254, 303, 323, 391;
nationalism of, 4, 8, 16–24, 50, 55, 60, 64, 66, 69, 96, 97, 128–33, 212, 215–16, 260, 311;
and NATO, 259, 263, 305, 307, 322–23, 330, 337, 394;
and neocapitalism, 245–54, 280, 311, 366, 390;
and neorealism, 80, 163, 166;
and 1948 elections, 91, 101–10, 157;
and 1953 elections, 149–51;
and 1958 elections, 222;
and 1968 elections, 304;
and 1975 elections, 324;
and 1976 elections, 336;
and 1979 elections, 346;
and Opening to the Left, 211, 217;
and pacifist campaigns, 123–36 passim, 155, 217, 257, 260, 373, 384–86;
and polycentrism, 200, 216, 217, 226, 257, 261, 303, 333;
in postwar government, 26–27;
and propaganda, 96–97, 104–5, 109, 126, 128–29, 135, 207–8, 262, 264, 329, 386, 391–92;
and PSI in 1970s–80s, 367–68, 370–71;
relations with Soviet Union, 5, 10, 96, 130, 211, 259;
and schools, 163, 168, 254;
and Social Democrats in Western Europe (“Westpolitik”), 261, 307, 313, 325, 335, 337, 387;
Soviet control of, 15, 22, 29, 33, 87–88, 91–92, 95–96, 122–23, 136, 268, 383, 385–86, 403 (n. 5), 472 (n. 3);
Soviet funding of, 107, 109, 123, 132–34, 161, 308–9;
and Soviet myth, 23, 28, 55, 95, 96, 124, 161, 211–12, 248, 307;
Soviet pressures resisted by, 24, 162–63, 217, 390, 472 (n. 3);
and U.S. mass culture, 158, 168–69, 170–72, 289, 352, 358–60, 378–80;
and U.S. politics in 1970s–90s, 317–18, 336–37, 367–70, 379;
and Vietnam War, 257–69 passim, 387;
view of Carter administration, 336–37, 470 (n. 74);
and working class, 19, 96, 169, 171–72, 248–49, 346, 378, 386, 389;
PDS (Partito Democratico della Sinistra), 371, 379, 396–97;
and NATO, 379
Pearson, Drew, 103
Pecchioli, Ugo, 343
Peggio, Eugenio, 217, 251, 262
Pella, Giuseppe, 130–31, 155, 156, 221
Pensée, La, 188–89
Perle, Richard, 377
“Permanent revolution” (U.S.), 53, 78, 87, 292, 388
Pertini, Sandro, 397
Pesenti, Antonio, 26, 76
Pesenti, Jacques, 357
Pétain, Philippe, 128
Petruccioli, Claudio, 259, 280
Picasso, Pablo, 31, 45, 122, 189, 199, 266, 437 (n. 82)
Pinay, Antoine, 152, 176, 204, 219–20
Pintor, Giaime, 409 (n. 91)
Pipes, Richard, 377
Pius XII (Pope), 20, 21, 103
Platone, Felice, 166–67
Pleven, René, 118, 128. See also EDC
Plissonnier, Gaston, 362
Plyoushch, Leonid, 361
Point IV Program, 117
Poland, 71, 92, 373;
Solidarity movement in, 368, 372, 470 (n. 73)
Poletti, Charles, 101
Policy Planning Staff (U.S.), 2, 99, 118, 422 (n. 66);
Policy Planning Council, 256;
and political warfare, 108, 139
Politecnico, Il, 42, 47, 48, 50, 411 (n. 113)
Political warfare. See Psychological warfare
Pompidou, Georges, 294, 319, 321, 327
Ponomariov, Boris, 310
Pons, Silvio, 313, 470 (n. 73)
Pop art, 277
Popular Democratic Front (Italy), 102–10 passim
Popular Front (France), 14–15, 29
Portelli, Alessandro, 293
Portugal, 93, 119, 316, 332;
and “Carnation Revolution,” 316, 332–33
Portuguese Communist Party, 316
Positivism (Italy), 48
Postmodernism, 363–64, 365, 375–76, 388;
and U.S. academia, 363
Potere Operaio, 279
Poujade, Pierre, 255
Powers, Gary, 236
Pragmatism (U.S.), 53, 56
Prague Spring, 70, 198, 281, 284, 309;
Club 231 in, 304;
and PCF-PCI condemnation of Soviet intervention, 304–8;
and PCF-PCI reconciliation with Soviet Union, 308;
and PSU, 299
Pratolini, Vasco, 199
Pravda, 161
Prenant, Marcel, 188
Presley, Elvis, 171, 358
Preuves, 183, 185
Prévert, Jacques, 199
Prezzolini, Giuseppe, 34
PRI (Partito Repubblicano Italiano), 108, 222, 328
Pro-Americanism (in public opinion): in France, 145, 254, 369–70, 381;
in Italy, 143, 145, 168, 254, 381
Productivity, 111
Progresso italo-americano, Il, 103
Propaganda, 96–97
PSIUP (Partito Socialista Italiano di Unità Proletaria), 299
PSU (Parti Socialiste Unifié), 242, 298–99
Psychological Strategy Board, 134, 135–36, 137, 141, 149, 150, 154, 201, 205, 207, 220, 392. See also Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare, 10, 86, 101, 136–56;
code “Cloven,” 141;
code “Clydesdale,” 141, 155;
code “Demagnetize,” 141;
code “Midiron,” 141, 143;
and diplomatic action, 201–2;
(p.527) and European integration, 139–41, 142;
and intellectuals in France and Italy, 160–61;
and LENAP, 147, 154;
as “political warfare,” 108–9
Purges: in postwar France and Italy, 24, 29
Quaderni rossi, 278
Quaderni piacentini, 278
Quasimodo, Salvatore, 437 (n. 82)
Quinzane, La, 170
Radical Party: in France, 25;
in Italy, 351, 356, 366, 467 (n. 21)
Radio Free Europe, 342
Radio Moscow, 161
RAI (Radio Televisione Italiana), 174, 177, 288, 358
Ramadier, Paul, 83, 84, 114
Ramette, Arthur, 167
Ramparts, 184
Rapports France-Etats-Unis, 111
Rassemblement Démocratique Révolutionnaire, 115
Rassemblement du Peuple Français, 130
RDF (Radio Diffusion France), 174, 177
Reader's Digest, 191
Reagan, Ronald, 367–70;
administration, 377, 384
Reale, Eugenio, 95, 199
Realism, socialist, 48, 187, 189, 191
Réalités, 111
Red Army, 23, 37
Red Scare. See McCarthyism
Reinhardt, Frederick, 237, 240, 255, 267
Remington-Rand France and Frigidaire, 251
Re Nudo, 357
Repetto, Margherita, 352
Repubblica, La, 359
Republican Party (U.S.), 205–6, 300, 368, 369, 376
Resistance: in France and Italy during World War II, 16, 17, 18, 21, 25, 26, 30, 37
Resnais, Alain, 289
Reuther, Victor and Walter, 240
Revel, Jean-François, 396;
Ni Marx, ni Jesus, 293–94
Révolution, 362
Reynaud, Paul, 128
Ridgway, Matthew, 126–27, 135, 144, 145, 386
Riesman, David: The Lonely Crowd, 192, 252
Rinascita, 19, 94, 95, 124, 133, 170, 172, 277, 284, 289, 322, 350, 355, 411 (n. 113)
Rioux, Jean-Pierre, 18
Risi, Dino: Il sorpasso, 253
Risorgimento, 19, 21, 29, 55
Riva, Valerio, 472 (n. 3)
Robeson, Paul, 95
Rocard, Michel, 299
Rochet, Waldeck, 252, 258, 290;
and European integration, 263;
and Prague Spring, 304, 306;
and Vietnam, 265;
and youth movements, 282, 284
Rockefeller, John, 45
Rockefeller, Nelson A., 146, 201, 235, 249
Rockefeller Foundation, 184
Rocky, 379
Rodano, Franco, 323, 366
Roger, Philip, 43
Rolland, Jacques-François, 199
Rolland, Roman, 122
Romagnoli, Luciano, 249
Romain, Jules, 181
Romania, 72
Rony, Jean, 315
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 20, 36, 39, 63, 272
Roosevelt, Theodore, 7
Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel, 148, 186–87
Rossanda, Rossana, 287–88
Rossellini, Roberto: Open City, 79, 80
Rostow, Walt, 56
Roudy, Yvette, 348
Rousset, David, 187
Roy, Claude, 46, 80, 199
Rubin, Barry, 281
Rumor, Mariano, 115, 328, 331, 332, 464 (n. 100)
Rumsfeld, Donald, 359
(p.528) Rusk, Dean, 240
Russel, Jane, 170
Russell, Bertrand, 183
Russell Tribunal on Vietnam, 266
Russia. See Soviet Union
Saba, Umberto, 31
Sacco and Vanzetti case, 187
Safir, Louis, 289, 291
Salinari, Carlo, 158, 169, 188
Salut les copains, 276, 277
Salzburg Seminar, 82
Sanguineti, Edoardo, 278
Santamaria, Yves, 136
Santoro, Carlo Maria, 470 (n. 74)
Saragat, Giuseppe, 68, 69, 84, 109, 222, 240
Sarkozy, Nicolas, 396
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 30, 31, 114, 183, 363, 406 (n. 47);
and anti-Americanism, 38–39, 115, 135, 186–87, 193, 252;
as “fellowtraveler,” 135;
and Italian Left, 287;
Les mains sales, 198;
and Marxism, 31, 54, 198–99, 252, 287, 388;
and McCarthyism, 183;
and Prague Spring, 286–87;
La putain respectueuse, 193;
and Stalinism, 50, 54, 198, 199, 266;
and U.S. culture, 44–45;
and U.S. tour, 45–46, 80, 410 (n. 96);
and Vietnam, 266;
What Is Literature?, 50;
and youth movements, 266, 286
Saturday Night Fever, 358
Scalzone, Oreste, 265
Scelba, Mario, 155, 211
Schlamm, Willi, 59
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr.: and CCF, 181–82, 185;
and Opening to the Left in Italy, 239–41, 243;
The Vital Center, 181
Schmidt, Helmut, 334, 345
Schuman, Robert, 128;
Schuman Plan, 120
Scoccimarro, Mauro, 17, 26, 216, 241
Scowcroft, Brent, 331
Secchia, Pietro, 95, 98, 104, 130, 157, 305, 441 (n. 23)
Segni, Antonio, 238
Segre, Sergio, 313, 315, 337
Seidman, Michael, 280
Sereni, Emilio, 37, 84, 85, 132, 200, 390, 450 (n. 55);
and anti-Americanism, 104–5, 127, 441 (n. 25);
and cultural commission, 157, 162–63, 168
Sereni, Vittorio, 287, 354
Seroni, Adriana, 351–52
Servan-Schreiber, Jean-Jacques: Le défi américain, 251, 252, 465 (n. 125)
Service Cinématographique des Armées, 174
Servin, Marcel, 233
Seven Arts, The, 159
Sforza, Carlo, 62, 67, 107, 134
Shils, Edward, 185
Shriver, Robert Sargent, 270, 297, 298, 326, 327, 395
Siegfried, André: America Comes of Age, 34, 35, 43
SIFAR (Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare), 238–39, 279, 328
Signoret, Simone, 304
Silone, Ignazio, 181, 185
Silvestri, Luigi, 188
Simca, 251
Simon, Sammy, 177
Sinatra, Frank, 101–2
Sindona, Michele, 328
Sinigaglia, Oscar, 76
Sino-Soviet split, 212, 257;
and PCF, 257, 268, 309;
and PCI, 257, 309
Slansky trial, 186
Smith-Mundt Act, 82, 173
Snyder, John W., 108
Soares, Mario, 316
Social Democrats (German). See Germany, West
Social Democrats (Italian) (PSLI, PSDI), 67, 68, 102, 108, 109, 222–23, 239
Socialisme ou barbarie, 278
Socialist International, 239
Socialist Party (French) (SFIO, PS), 25, 26, 67, 68, 83, 84, 95, 117, 133, 152, 241;
and anti-Americanism, 115, 225, 264, 318–19, 328;
and Italian elections, 102;
and 1958 crisis, 229;
and pacifism, 71;
pro-Americanism of, 116, 318, 321, 369;
(p.529) relations with PCF, 71, 84, 200, 208, 211, 242, 245, 264, 299, 300, 303, 315, 321–22, 324, 327, 336, 362, 367, 368, 369, 372–73, 381. See also Mitterrand, François
Socialist Party (Italian) (PSIUP, PSI), 20, 27, 68, 115–16;
and anti-Americanism, 105, 163, 215, 239, 328;
and anticommunism, 367;
in center-left governments, 264, 288;
and European integration, 215, 240;
and feminism, 351–52, 467 (n. 21);
and neutralism, 240, 267;
and Opening to the Left, 211, 222, 224, 238–43, 395;
and pacifism, 71, 123;
pro-Americanism of, 343, 366, 367, 369, 374;
and Third World, 269;
unity with PCI, 71, 96, 102, 105, 155, 226. See also Nenni, Pietro
Social sciences (U.S.): influence of, in France and Italy, 192, 364–65
Sogno, Edgardo, 139
Solidarity movement. See Poland
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr: The Gulag Archipelago, 361, 365;
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, 286
Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, 326
South East Asian Treaty Organization, 208
Soviet Union, 1, 93, 157, 330;
alliance with Nazi Germany, 16, 29;
anti-Americanism in, 8, 193, 272;
and cultural propaganda, 161, 162;
and de Gaulle, 38, 62, 71, 232, 268;
and de-Stalinization, 196–200, 209;
and Fordism, 41;
France and Italy influenced by, 13–14, 70–71, 72;
and Franco-Russian Treaty of 1944, 38, 39, 62, 70–71, 72;
and Hungary, 197–98, 209, 303, 309;
and Italian elections, 106–7, 109;
and Marshall Plan, 88, 91, 101;
and Mitterrand, 268;
myth of, in French and Italian Left, 8, 36, 54–55, 107, 388;
and 1950s détente, 206, 209–10, 236, 256;
and 1960s détente, 237, 256, 272, 308;
and 1970s détente, 11, 317;
and 1980s détente, 370;
and pacifist campaigns, 122–23, 131, 151, 208;
propaganda of, 207, 248;
recognizes government of Italy, 70, 71–72;
and Soviet appeal in Third World, 209–10;
and Twentieth CPSU Congress, 196–97;
Soviet Writers Congress, 48
Spaghetti Westerns, 289
Spain, 241, 316, 332, 333, 344
Spellman, Francis (Cardinal), 103
Spengler, Oswald, 2, 365
Spielberg, Stephen, 376
Spini, Giorgio, 178
Spire, Antoine, 315
Spriano, Paolo, 266, 365
Springsteen, George, 294
Sputnik, 193, 235
Stalin, Joseph, 39, 55, 96, 172, 198, 209, 248;
and French and Italian Communists, 22–23, 71, 95–96, 98, 131;
and peace appeal of 1952, 131, 134;
and Picasso, 189;
purges by, 16;
and Stalinism, 196–200, 314
State Department: and cultural activities, 179–80;
and EEC, 213;
and Historic Compromise, 337, 342, 344;
and Italian elections, 101–2, 103;
and Marshall Plan, 112;
and NATO, 119;
and psywar, 146
Steinbeck, John, 42, 44
Stendhal, 33
Stettinius, Edward, 64, 67
Stevenson, Adlai E., 180
Stiglitz, Joseph, 389–90, 396
Stil, André, 126
Stockholm Peace Appeal, 8–9, 122–23, 132, 181, 206, 373, 385–86
Structuralism, 361, 363, 364
Students for a Democratic Society, 289
Sturzo, Luigi (Don), 74
Suez crisis, 223, 225, 227, 228, 230, 234, 235
Suslov, Mikhail, 122, 309
Sweden, 263
Talenti, Pier, 328
Tarchiani, Alberto, 61, 62, 76, 106, 107, 345
(p.530) Tardini (Monsignor), 62
Tasca, Henry J., 73, 74, 152, 222
Tati, Jacques: Jour de fête, 111;
Mon oncle, 252;
Playtime, 252
Tatò, Antonio, 323, 367
Tempo Presente, 184, 199
Temps modernes, Les, 29, 30, 54, 114, 170, 183, 252
Temps présent, 25, 26
Tendence Syndicale Révolutionnaire Fédéraliste, 179
Terracini, Umberto, 85, 91–92, 96, 304, 305, 312
Terrorism: in Germany, 291;
in Italy, 284, 291, 303, 305, 317–18, 354, 386;
and PCI, 312, 317–18, 322, 324, 346;
and Red Brigades, 312, 324, 346, 355;
and U.S., 317–18, 322. See also Moro, Aldo
Thibau, Jacques, 318
Tho, Le Duc, 258
Thoreau, Henry David, 42
Thorez, Maurice: and anti-Americanism, 93–96, 128, 158, 164–65, 403 (n. 1);
and Catholics, 25–26;
death of, 306;
and de Gaulle, 18, 233;
and de-Stalinization, 197–200, 211;
and expulsion from government, 83–86, 409 (n. 80);
and grandeur, 16;
and insurrection, 98;
and intellectuals, 31, 49, 164–65, 189;
and Marshall Plan, 93–94;
and mass culture, 158, 165, 171;
moderation toward U.S., 39;
and nationalism, 22, 130;
and pacifism, 130, 136, 426 (n. 5);
and PCI, 70;
personality cult of, 18–19, 198;
in post-war government, 14–15, 25;
and Socialists, 225;
and Stalin, 22, 23, 95;
and state bureaucracy, 24–25;
and U.S. aid, 91–92;
in U.S.S.R., 131
Thorez-Vermeersch, Jeannette, 305
Tillon, Charles, 25, 122, 128, 130, 142, 287
Time, 183
Tito (Josip Broz)/Titoism, 128, 130
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 33, 191
Togliatti, Palmiro, 1, 62, 70, 71, 166, 366, 402 (n. 1), 447 (n. 122);
and anti-Americanism, 1–4, 51, 85, 94–96, 105, 135, 163, 208, 226;
assassination attempt against, 108;
and Catholics, 133;
cooperation with U.S., 39;
death of, 306;
and de-Stalinization, 196–200;
and détente, 211;
and “doppiezza,” 23;
and European integration, 216;
and expulsion from government, 83–86;
and Hungary, 197, 226;
and insurrection, 98, 102;
and intellectuals, 28, 31–33, 48, 163, 187–88, 189–90, 287;
and Marshall Plan, 93, 96;
and mass culture, 167;
and nationalism, 17–18, 22;
and 1948 elections, 102, 103–4, 105;
and Opening to the Left, 240–41;
and pacifism, 124, 130, 133, 136;
and polycentrism, 197, 200, 303;
in postwar government, 14–15, 26, 27;
and propaganda, 109;
and Stalin, 22, 23, 131;
and U.S. aid, 91–92;
and Vietnam War, 257–58;
Yalta Memorandum of, 278, 287
Tönnies, Ferdinand, 2
Tortorella, Aldo, 366
Toscanini, Arturo, 101
Totalitarianism, 58, 286, 362–63, 377–78
Totò, 164
Touraine, Alain, 281, 378, 396
Trentin, Bruno, 254
Trieste dispute, 18, 65, 67, 69, 71, 131, 155
Trilling, Lionel, 159, 192
Trombadori, Antonello, 200
Trotskyism: in France, 259, 275, 277, 278, 363;
in Italy, 259, 277, 279, 364
Truman, Harry S., 36, 128, 148, 427 (n. 23), 429 (n. 55);
and France, 64;
and Italy, 63, 66;
targeted by PCF and PCI, 94, 129;
Truman Doctrine, 62, 78, 85, 93
Truman administration, 60;
and psywar, 136–47, 160
Turkey, 332
Turner, Ted, 376
Tyler, William, 241, 434 (n. 43)
UDI (Unione delle Donne Italiane), 195, 350, 351
UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro), 96, 100, 144
Union Démocratique pour la Paix et la Liberté, 139
(p.531) Union des Etudiants Communistes, 275, 278
Union des Ingénieurs et Techniciens (UNITEC), 254
Union des Jeunesses Communistes Marxistes-Leninistes, 275
Unione Nazionale per la Lotta contro l'Analfabetismo, 175
Union Nationale des Etudiants de France, 275
Unità, L', 1, 2, 37, 38, 85;
revision of, 166–67, 288;
in U.S., 342–43
United Automobile Workers, 240
United States: and anticommunism, 56–61, 94, 148, 295;
communism in, 78–79;
and communist peace campaigns, 131, 209–10;
conformism in, 52, 191–92;
conservatism in, 58–59, 325, 337, 352;
contacts with PCF, 270, 297–98, 326, 386;
contacts with PCI, 270, 297–98, 331, 342–43, 345, 386;
covert funding in France and Italy, 99–100, 107–10, 222, 269, 326–27, 328, 333;
cultural inferiority complex, 158–59, 297, 360;
cultural influence in Europe, 80, 157, 297;
and decolonization, 156, 223–24;
and diplomatic intervention in France and Italy, 10, 60–64, 67–70, 75–78, 100, 107, 210, 212, 214, 270, 326–27, 331–35, 341, 344–46, 369–70, 393–95;
and economic anticommunism in France and Italy, 60, 88–89, 142–43, 334–36, 341, 343–44, 390–91;
and elections in Italy, 101–10;
and Eurocommunism, 325–46;
and European integration, 10, 64, 67, 139–41, 149, 151, 212–15, 338, 394;
and expulsion of Communists from French and Italian governments, 82–86;
and globalization, 390, 396, 418 (n. 7);
influence in France, 146, 157–58, 168, 171–72, 326–27, 369–70, 395–96;
influence welcomed by European leaders, 19, 20, 34, 61–62, 109, 214–15, 234, 326–27, 332–33, 345;
handling of anti-Americanism, 66–69, 184–85, 218–23, 227–31, 240, 338, 341, 393, 394–95;
and intellectuals in France and Italy, 177–86, 205, 341–42, 347;
Italian American groups in, 101–3, 175, 333, 359, 422 (n. 63);
and Marshall Plan, 87–101, 383, 391;
and mobilization at home, 56–57, 145;
national identity of, 11, 53–54, 60, 393, 412 (n. 14);
nationalism of, 57, 300, 369, 370, 376;
nation-building in France and Italy, 60–62;
neoconservatism in, 337, 368–70, 376–77;
and 1950s détente, 156, 208–10, 236, 256;
and 1960s détente, 237, 256;
and 1970s détente, 11, 300, 317, 325, 338;
and 1980s détente, 370;
and Opening to the Left, 222, 237–43, 395;
and PCF influence in France in 1950s–60s, 205, 255–56, 267, 298, 390, 391–92, 452 (n. 78);
and PCF in government, 64–82;
and PCF international influence, 136, 225–27, 327;
and PCI influence in Italy in 1950s–60s, 200, 205, 240, 255–56, 267, 298, 330, 390, 391–92;
and PCI in government, 64–82;
and PCI international influence, 225–26, 268, 330, 333, 335, 337, 339, 390;
and PSIUP, 299;
and PSU, 298–99;
as pluralist democracy, 11, 181–82, 185, 271–72, 289, 296, 300, 360, 387–88, 395–96;
propaganda of, in France and Italy, 77, 78, 79, 102, 103, 110–16, 138–41, 143, 146–47, 160, 161, 173–77, 392–93;
racism in, 94, 193–94, 226, 293;
and rearmament, 123–26, 138–39, 235;
relative decline of, 295–96, 310, 325;
and risk of communist insurrection in France and Italy, 83, 98–99, 102;
soft power of, 60, 157, 370;
and status of France and Italy, 63–64, 146;
and tourism in Europe, 111;
and wedge strategies against PCF-PCI, 69–70, 142, 270, 298–99, 343;
UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Recovery Administration), 75
Urban, George, 339–40
URSS et nous, L', 314, 315, 362
USIA (United States Information Agency), 147, 149, 177. See also USIE; USIS
USIE (United States Information and Education), 137, 141, 147
USIS (United States Information Service)/U.S. cultural exchange programs, 80, 81–82, 147;
and Eurocommunism, 342;
and intellectuals, 185;
and Marshall Plan, 110–11;
and Office of Information and Cultural Affairs, 82, 178–80;
and propaganda in France and Italy, 138–39, 168, 173–77, 210, 439 (n. 3);
raided by PCF, 176;
reduced activity of, 269
Vailland, Roger, 199
Valenti, Jack, 267, 270
Valletta, Vittorio, 76
Vance, Cyrus, 339, 341
Vanoni, Ezio, 155
Vatican: and Italian elections, 102, 103–4, 109, 421 (n. 57);
and Kennedy administration, 241;
and Marshall Plan, 94;
Mater et Magistra, 248;
and PCI, 373;
welcomes U.S. influence, 62, 103, 332–33. See also Catholicism
Veil, Simone, 348
Veltroni, Walter, 379
Vercors (Jean Bruller), 80, 187, 199, 266, 362
Vernant, Jean-Pierre, 278
Vernes, Jacqueline, 247
Vichy regime, 17, 24, 31
Vico, Giambattista, 366
Vie Nuove, 96, 164, 171, 172, 194, 276
Vie ouvrière, La, 167
Vietnam, 308, 330, 362, 375;
Vietnam War, 10, 11, 245, 256–72 passim, 295, 296, 299, 307–8, 317, 325, 355, 356;
war with France, 84, 118, 119, 124, 154, 203, 209
Vietnam Party of Workers, 258
Vincent, Madeleine, 348
Vinson, Fred, 75, 76
Vital Center, 57, 60, 181, 184, 192, 218, 237, 395
Vittorini, Elio, 42, 47–48, 50, 187, 188, 287, 437 (n. 82)
Voice of America, 102–3, 110, 138, 173, 177
Volpe, John, 328, 342
Volpi, Giuseppe, 37
Wagnleitner, Reinhold, 173
Walesa, Lech, 368, 470 (n. 73)
Wall, Irwin, 82, 197
Wall, Matthew, 414 (n. 40)
Wallace, Henry A., 57, 75
Wallon, Henri, 199
Walmsley, Walter, 142
Weber, Max, 2
Welles, Sumner, 1
Wells, Orson, 172, 453 (n. 87)
West Bengal, 389
Western European Union, 213, 220
White, Theodore, 110
Whitman, Walt, 42, 190, 271, 272
Whyte, William H.: The Organization Man, 192, 252
Wilder, Billy, 79
Williams, William Appleman, 295
Wilson, Woodrow/Wilsonianism, 44, 56, 368–69, 377
Wisner, Frank, 139
World Committee of Peace Partisans, 123, 124, 256;
World Congress of Peace Partisans sessions, 122, 125, 131, 181, 186
World Congress against Fascism and Imperialist War, 122
World Federation of Trade Unions, 216
Wright, Richard, 49
YMCA, 166
Yom Kippur War, 332
Young Americans for Freedom, 296
Youth culture: in France, 158, 171, 276, 356–58, 378–79;
(p.533) in Italy, 170, 171, 276, 354–55, 378–79;
and PCF, 171, 277;
and PCI, 171, 276, 277, 354–58;
in U.S., 169–70, 171, 276, 297, 356–58
Youth movements: and Algerian war, 225, 275, 278;
and Americanization, 273–75, 281–82, 284, 293–94, 302, 356–57, 387–88, 396;
and anti-Americanism, 275, 279, 386;
libertarian traits of, 274–75, 278, 281–82, 290–91, 396;
and students in France, 254, 265, 268, 274–76, 279–85;
and students in Italy, 254, 274–76, 279–85;
and students in U.S., 11, 273–75, 281–82, 325, 359;
and Third Worldism, 275, 279;
U.S. government and, 294, 296–97;
and Vietnam War, 275, 279–80, 359;
Yugoslavia, 44, 65, 130, 143, 263. See also Trieste dispute
Zaslavsky, Victor, 196, 472 (n. 3)
Zeffirelli, Franco, 342, 360
Zeldin, Theodore, 55
Zellerbach, David, 226, 239
Zhdanov, Andrei/Zhdanovism, 48, 85, 162, 187, 189, 190;
and Cominform, 95;
and PCF, 92