This chapter discusses the artillery, which underwent the most organizational changes than any other branch of Lee's army. In the Battle of First Manassas, the Confederacy barely had two dozen field guns, which it parceled out among various brigades, severely limiting its effectiveness. Over the next year the army saw a substantial increase in the number of guns, but there were two major drawbacks. First, the way the Confederacy organized its artillery did not exploit its new batteries, and, second, the quality and caliber of guns did not match Federal artillery. Thus, not only were the Confederates outgunned, the dilution of artillery firepower by scattering guns throughout the army worsened the problem. Under the slow, unsteady hand of clergyman-turned-chief-of-artillery William Nelson Pendleton, Lee's artillery implemented two series of changes, one in October 1862 and the other in mid-February 1863.
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