Dumont mentioned, in his memoir, nearly 250 individuals by name or title, and research by the editorial team has been able to identify more than two-thirds of these people in other archival and scholarly sources. They are listed below. Names not included here have been omitted because no further information could be found beyond what Dumont provides or because a nickname or ambiguous spellings of a name make it impossible to positively identify the person. Each entry begins in boldface with a standard spelling as used in the text of the translation, although in some cases it is not a spelling used consistently in other sources. Following this is a list of variant spellings, if any, that Dumont uses in the manuscript.
Some of the people listed here were prominent in France or in the French colonies and are included in major biographical dictionaries such as the bilingual Dictionnaire biographique du Canada / Dictionary of Canadian Biography, online at biographi.ca, and the still incomplete Dictionnaire de biographique française, sous la direction de J. Balteau … (Paris, 1933–). For these prominent individuals, the entries here are brief and concentrate on the period and events covered by Dumont's memoirs, 1715–1747, and on the titles or jobs held by that individual, the places where he or she lived, and the dates of passage to and from America.
Sources for entries on the lesser-known individuals include passenger lists from the 1719–1722 period and censuses and lists of officers in Louisiana from 1718 to 1731, many of which have been translated and published in the LHQ and in Glenn R. Conrad's two-volume First Families of Louisiana (FFLa). A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, also edited by Conrad, is another important reference. The reader will notice how many of these people died in the Natchez Massacre, as confirmed by the list compiled by Father Philibert in 1730 (reprinted in FFLa, II, 141–143, and in MPA, I, 122–126). The most important source, however, has been Carl Brasseaux's CD-ROM publication France's Forgotten Legion: Service Records of French Military and Administrative Personnel Stationed in the Mississippi Valley and Gulf Coast Region, 1699–1769 (FFL), which contains entries for thousands of individuals who served in Louisiana, including roughly half of those whom Dumont mentions, and cites extensive sources in the French archives. Brasseaux organized his CD-ROM, not in a single alphabetical list, but in six parts: administrators and governors, officers, noncommissioned officers, cadets, soldiers, and finally support staff (such as engineers, interpreters, and surgeons). Because of this structure, it can be time-consuming to locate an individual, and some have multiple entries, such as for service both as an officer and an administrator. As an aid to researchers, the entries below provide references to the corresponding entries for each individual found in the FFL CD-ROM. The first of the three numbers corresponds (p.414) to the six parts, the second to the chapters within that part, and the third to a page number. If the name differs from what Dumont used, the name of the entry is also included. Other sources that have been essential for the compilation of the biographical dictionary include the summary of the records of the Superior Council of Louisiana published in LHQ, II–V, the MPA, the HNAI, Dumont's own Mémoires historiques, Marcel Giraud's HLF, and Shannon Dawdy's database of New Orleans property owners, printed as Appendix C in “La Ville Sauvage: ‘Enlightened' Colonialism and Creole Improvisation in New Orleans, 1699–1769” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 2003).
Captain of the Profond, which sailed from New Orleans in 1723 with Delorme. He later became a pilot at La Balize in 1732.
Andriot, Nicolas (died in 1722)
Sailed to Louisiana with Dumont as a sublieutenant on the Marie in 1719. Commissioned as lieutenant in 1720. Performed the duties of major at Biloxi and at Dauphin Island. Died at Old Biloxi. [FFL, 2:1:4]
Argenson [d'Argenson], Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy, comte de Weil (1696–1764)
A magistrate at the court at Châtelet in 1717 and appointed lieutenant general of the police in Paris in 1720. He was close to Belle-Isle and became one of Dumont's most important protectors, probably owing to connections with Dumont's father and brothers in the legal profession. He became a secretary of state for defense in 1743, and while he was in this capacity, Dumont wrote him letters from Port-Louis asking for an appointment. To him, Dumont dedicated the copy of his poem that is held today at the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris, a library founded by Argenson's nephew, Antoine-René.
Artaguiette [Dartaguette], Jean-Baptiste Martin d' (1683–after 1747)
Shared, with Nicolas de la Salle, the post of commissaire ordonnateur of Louisiana from 1708 to 1711, when he returned to France and was named a director of the Company of the Indies. [FFL, “d'Artaguiette Diron,” 1:1:23–24]
Artaguiette [Dartaguiette d'Itouralde], Pierre d' (died in 1736)
Younger brother of Bernard Diron d'Artaguiette and of Martin d'Artaguiette, he arrived with them in 1707 as a cadet. He went to Illinois in 1718 as a captain. After courageous service in combat against the Natchez in 1730, he was named commander of the fort that replaced Fort Rosalie there. In 1732, he was a major at New Orleans and in 1733 returned to Illinois. He was awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1735 but died in the ill-fated expedition against the Chickasaws, in which he was ordered to lead a detachment from the Illinois country that arrived weeks before French troops reached the Chickasaw villages from the south. [FFL, 2:2:11–14]
Appointed maréchal de camp in 1702 and awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1703 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1715, he joined the council of war and then the Council of the Marine and became commander of the Order of Knights of Saint Louis. His most significant role in the military was as director of fortifications. He became a marquis in July 1719 and a maréchal de France in 1734. With Belle-Isle, La Jonchère, and Le Blanc, he invested in several concessions under Law's scheme.
Bailly, Charles (died in 1729)
Embarked on the Mutine bound for Louisiana from Lorient in November 1719. He had his wife, Marguerite, with him. Served as a director for the Company of the Indies at Natchez in 1727–1729, where he was killed in the revolt. [FFL, 1:1:2]
Baldic [Baldy], Theodore (died in 1737)
Listed as a surgeon for the Company of the Indies in 1727. Served at Yazoo and elsewhere. In a census of farms and concessions along the Mississippi River in 1731, his land lies “below Chapitoulas,” he is not married, and he employs one servant and ten African slaves. Shortly after his death in January 1737, his succession was recorded before the Superior Council, and his plantation on the Mississippi, near Bienville's lands, was put up for auction. [FFL, “Balduc,” 6:2:2]
Born at Le Mesnil-Thomas (Eure-et-Loir) around 1700, she arrived on the Mutine in 1719 as one of the young women forcibly transported from Paris. Her daughter Marie-Louise Baron is recorded as dying at Biloxi on March 28, 1722. Later in the 1720s, Marie lived near Natchez with her husband Jean Roussin. She was captured by the Natchez in the revolt but was ransomed after the siege later that winter. She married Dumont in New Orleans on April 19, 1730.
Baudoin, R. Père Michel, S.J. (1691–1692; 1766–1768)
Born in Quebec, he sailed to Louisiana around 1728 and lived for eighteen years as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians, where he helped to maintain their close allegiance to the French. He served as a chaplain during the First Chickasaw War (1736). In 1749, he became superior of Jesuit missions, and then, in 1750, grand vicar of Louisiana, which was still administered through the Bishop of Quebec, as well as director of the Ursuline convent in New Orleans. He remained in the colony even after the Jesuits were expelled from Louisiana in the 1750s.
Beauharnois de la Boische, Charles, marquis de (1671–1749)
Governor of New France from 1726 to 1747, he led wars against the Fox Indians in the western Great Lakes region and began the offensives against the English in North America during the War of the Austrian Succession. He was a cousin of Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas, minister of the marine from 1723–1749.
Although he was named intendant of New France in 1710, he did not sail for Quebec until 1712, where he served until 1726. During his first few years in Quebec, he enriched himself by buying up card money for less than its face value.
Belle-Isle [Belisle, Bellile], Charles-Louis-Auguste Fouquet, duc de (1684–1761)
The principle sponsor and protector of Dumont, who dedicated his prose memoir to him. With his partners Le Blanc, La Jonchère, and d'Asfeld, he invested in the colonization scheme of John Law. He was also implicated along with La Jonchère and Le Blanc in financial improprieties and imprisoned in the Bastille in 1724–1725, but he recovered his reputation and was named maréchal de France, the nation's highest military rank, in 1741. During the War of the Austrian Succession, he invaded Prague, only to be forced to retreat in the winter of 1742–1743. In August 1744, he was captured in Germany and held in England for a year. When the English forces attacked Lorient in 1746, he was leading French troops in Italy.
Bénard de la Harpe, Jean-Baptiste (1683–1765)
Born at Saint-Malo, he arrived in Louisiana in 1718 and, in the following five years, became an important explorer. His first expedition, from December 1718 to November 1719 up the Red River, established a post among the “Nassonites,” or Caddo Indians, and continued overland into presentday Oklahoma, seeking a route to the Spanish colony of Santa Fe. The second expedition, from August to December 1721, was undertaken with Simars de Belleisle to search for survivors of the lost ship Maréchal d'Estrées. Dumont took part in the third expedition, from February to April 1722, on the Arkansas River. Bénard de la Harpe returned to France on the Alexandre in 1723. He was the author of several maps and of narratives of his voyages (BNF, MSS fr. 8989). A manuscript first published in 1831 under his name was based on a manuscript that is likely the work of Jean de Beaurain but based on Bénard de la Harpe's writings. [FFL, 2:1:22]
Sailed for Louisiana on the Victoire in 1718 as a lieutenant. Served as captain commandant of the Natchez post in 1721, when Dumont arrived there. He sided with Bienville in a dispute with Hubert and the officers of the Saint Catherines concession. Accused of malfeasance and dismissed in 1724, he returned to France the next year. According to Giraud, he “was accused of having sacrificed the Company's interests by estimating too low a price for the domain of Terre Blanche, which had been sold to the Le Blanc–Belle-Isle concessions. He was dismissed and banned from ever returning to the service” (HLF, V, 52–53). [FFL, 2:1:27]
Bessan, Arnaud de
Served in Louisiana 1728–1733 and possibly as late as 1737. Bessan is listed an ensign in 1728 and 1730 and as an adjutant major under Louboëy in the Natchez war of 1729–1731. He then appears as an adjutant major at New Orleans in 1731–1733. [FFL, 2:1:33–34]
Born in Montreal, he was commandant and governor of the Louisiana colony for three separate periods: 1701–1713, 1718–1724 (sharing the post with his brother Sérigny in 1717–1718), and 1733–1743. A son of Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay and Catherine Thierry, he took part in naval expeditions in Canada led by his older brother d'Iberville and traveled with him on the first voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1699. He led an expedition against the Natchez in 1716 and was awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1717. Dumont reports the events of his command from 1719 until 1724, when he was replaced as governor due to the inquiry of royal commissioners La Chaise and Saunoy. After the Natchez massacre, Périer's leadership was discredited, and in the summer of 1732, the king reappointed Bienville as governor. [FFL, 1:4:15–26]
Bizard [Bisarre, Bizaire, Bizarre], Louis Hector
A Canadian from a Swiss family, he served in the Great Lakes region before obtaining a commission in Louisiana. He arrived on the Dromadaire in 1720. As a captain of a company in the Le Blanc concession, he replaced La Boulaye in April 1721 as commandant of Fort Saint-Pierre at Yazoo. Named captain in 1722, he was discharged in 1723, and Dumont reports that he died in that year. [FFL (“Bissard” and “Bizart” are likely the same man), 2:1:36]
Blanc [Leblanc], César de (1683–1763)
Sailed to Louisiana aboard the Aurore in 1719 and became captain of infantry in 1720. He was listed on a census as living at Biloxi in January 1721. Bienville appointed him a captain in 1734, and he served in Illinois and then as commandant of Natchitoches from 1746, following the death of Juchereau de Saint Denis, his father-in-law, until shortly before his own death. [FFL, 2:2:16–18]
This likely was the family name of a wigmaker who, on the census of 1726, is identified by the given name François Dizier (or Didier?), living in the rue Bourbon in New Orleans along with his wife, two children, one servant, and four other Frenchmen, who apparently were boarders. It seems that Dumont was a boarder in his household several years earlier.
Boisbriant [Boisbriand, Bois Brillant], Pierre Sidrac Dugué de, chevalier de (1675–1736)
A cousin of the Le Moyne family, he was born in Montreal, came to Louisiana with d'Iberville in 1699, and remained, occupying a number of positions: at a Company of the West post at Wabash from 1713–1717, as commandant of Mobile in 1717–1718, and then as commandant of Illinois, in 1719–1723, where he built Fort de Chartres. During a leave in Paris in 1717, he received a commission as royal lieutenant of Louisiana as well as a seat on the Superior Council. He served as governor and commandant of the colony from 1724–1727 during a hiatus between Bienville and Périer. He refused to cooperate with La Chaise, who helped to force his recall. Once back in France in 1728, he was demoted and banned from royal service. [FFL, 1:4:6–9]
Secretary to Governor Bienville, warehouse manager at New Orleans, and, later, administrator for all the Louisiana concessions of Le Blanc and Belle-Isle. He came to Louisiana in 1717 as a scribe and helped to clear the concession at Bayagoulas called Le Buisson, one of the most prosperous in the colony. [FFL, 1:1:13–14]
Bourgmont [Bourgmond], Etienne Véniard de (c. 1675–1734)
A noted explorer of the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers and author of two memoirs and several maps based on his explorations. He sailed to Canada in 1695, possibly as a forced transportee. In 1706, he replaced Cadillac as commandant of Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit. He left that post after less than a year, however, and lived among the Indians. In 1712, he reemerged at Mobile with a plan to secure an alliance with France of several native nations along the Missouri River. He made another expedition up the Missouri for this purpose in 1714 and participated in the battles for Pensacola in 1719. He then sailed for France along with a son born to a Missouri Indian woman and, in 1720, he encountered Dumont at Lorient. Upon his arrival in France, he was given a commission as captain and awarded the Croix de Saint Louis and the title of commandant of Missouri, with the expectation that he would establish a post on the Missouri River for the Company of the Indies. He returned to America and succeeded in building Fort d'Orléans, some 450 km from the mouth of the river near the presentday town of Carrollton, Missouri, where archaeologists have located remains of the fort. He returned to France in 1725; at first, he was to embark on the Bellone, and after it sank, he sailed on the Gironde. With him traveled a delegation of Indians, and all were feted at Fontainebleau by the duc de Bourbon. Bourgmont was presented to the king, who elevated him to the noble rank of écuyer. The memoirs of his explorations were first published in Histoire de la Louisiane, III, 141–221. [FFL, “Véniard de Bourgmont,” 2:6:59–60]
Brancas, Louis, marquis de (died in 1750)
A military leader since 1690, he was France's ambassador to Spain in 1713 and in that capacity participated in the Treaty of Utrecht with Spain, Savoy, Portugal, and Holland. He was reappointed as ambassador to Spain in 1727. In 1738, he became commandant of Brittany, and in 1741, a maréchal de camp.
Breteuil [Bretiville], François Victor le Tonnelier de (1686–1743)
Appointed in 1721 as prévôt and master of ceremonies to the king, he served a first stint as minister of war, from 1723–1726, when he was replaced by Claude Le Blanc. But in 1740, he returned to that post after the death of Dangervilliers and thus was minister of war during France's involvement in the War of the Austrian Succession.
Arrived in Louisiana on the Duchesse de Noailles in 1718, then on the Seine on a second voyage in 1720. He is listed as a surgeon and a resident of New Orleans from 1726–1732. His name also appears as the godfather in a baptism in 1753.
An engineer, cartographer, and surveyor, he arrived in Louisiana on the Alexandre in 1720 with a commission as a half-pay captain in the troops of the Le Blanc / Belle-Isle concessions. He served as commandant at Fort Rosalie in 1726–1727, where (Dumont writes) Broutin delegated many responsibilities to Dumont. As engineer, Broutin replaced Pauger and thus was responsible for repairing the fortifications at Natchez as well as for several projects around New Orleans. He is further known for his remarkably accurate building plans and maps of Natchez and other regions. His son Ignace also served as an engineer in the colony. [FFL, 5:1:6–9]
Bru [Brut], Louis
He was appointed chief commissary for the Company of the Indies at New Orleans in 1723 by La Chaise and the third ranking member of the Superior Council in 1726. Later, he was acting chief commissary at Mobile.
Brulé [Bruslé], Antoine-Philippe
A Parisian, he was the chief judge of the Superior Council of Louisiana and the conseil de la régie from 1722–1731. He was linked by marriage to the head prosecutor Fleuriau. Named general director for the Company of the Indies in Louisiana in 1730, he succeeded his close ally La Chaise. [FFL, 1:3:4]
Buchet [Buchette], Joseph (died after 1759)
A wealthy habitant and warehouse manager in Illinois, first at Kaskaskia and then at Fort de Chartres. He later served as acting chief commissary and as judge in the Illinois country from 1748 to 1760. [FFL, 1:1:14–15]
Buissonnière, Alphonse (died in 1740)
Listed as a half-pay lieutenant at Natchez in 1730, he was soon promoted to captain and then to major. Served as a major at Illinois from 1734 to 1736 and earned the praise of Bienville and of Beauchamp, the adjutant major at Mobile. He survived the Second Chickasaw War but died at Illinois in December 1740. [FFL, 2:1:56]
Cahura-Joligo (died in 1731)
The Tunicas were living on the Yazoo River when two missionary priests of the Quebec Seminary, François de Montigny and Antoine Davion, arrived in 1702 and earned the friendship of their leader, Cahura-Joligo. The missionaries were expelled around 1703 but later returned. When the French fought a brief war with the Natchez in 1716, the Tunica assisted French soldiers and officers, including the memoirist André Pénicaut. As Dumont reports, the “Chef des Tonicas” was a loyal ally of the French all through the 1720s. In the aftermath of the Natchez uprising in 1729, however, a group of refugee Natchez attacked the Tunica village and killed him.
Carpeau de Montigny [Carpot de Montigny]
Commissioned sublieutenant in 1719 and as a captain in 1720, with these comments next to his name: “He is at Pensacola. He has a drinking problem but promises (p.420) to correct it.” (FFLa, I, 142) He returned to France in 1723 with his uncle, Bénard de la Harpe. [FFL, 2:1:60]
See Vaudreuil de Cavagnial
Cazeneuve, M. de (died in 1728)
Listed as an ensign in 1720 and as lieutenant at Natchez under Berneval in 1721 and under Merveilleux in 1727–1728. [FFL, 2:61]
Céleron de Blainville [Céloron de Blainville], Pierre Joseph (1693–1759)
Born at Montreal, commissioned as a lieutenant in 1731, he was commandant of the fort at Michilimackinac when Bienville launched the Second Chickasaw War. He led a detachment of some two hundred Canadians and three hundred native Americans to join this failed offensive. Afterward, he was transferred to Detroit and awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1741. Between 1750 and 1753, he led expeditions into the Ohio valley to consolidate the allegiance of native nations against the English. [FFL, 2:1:61–62]
Chamilly, François-Jacques Bouton, comte de (1663–1722)
Nephew of a more famous maréchal de France, Noël Bouton de Chamilly, he rose to the ranks of maréchal de camp in 1702 and then lieutenant general, as well as governor of La Rochelle, in 1704.
Champmeslin [Chamelain, Chamelin], Desnos de
Commandant of the French fleet that sailed to attack the Spanish at Pensacola in 1719, he was also chosen as commandant of a planned expedition to attack Havana in 1723. [FFL, 2:1:66]
Chateaugué [Chateauguay], Antoine Le Moyne de (1683–1747)
A brother of d'Iberville and Bienville, he arrived in Louisiana in 1703 as a captain and was involved in illicit commerce with Havana and New Spain. He received a commission as a second royal lieutenant in 1718 and commanded Fort Pensacola while it was under French control. He was awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1721, returned to France in 1726, and later served in Martinique and Cayenne. Later in life, he was governor of Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island) and died at Rochefort. [FFL, 1:4:26–28]
Chavannes [Chavanne], Jean-Baptiste de
Sailed with Dumont on the Marie in 1719, having been sent to the colonies under a lettre de cachet. He rose to be secretary of the Superior Council of Louisiana and to the conseil de la régie from 1723–1729 but was recalled to France by orders of Périer in 1729. Nonetheless, he appears to have stayed in Louisiana, married Marie-Thérèze Fichou in New Orleans in 1730, and lived on a farm just upstream of the city during the 1730s. [FFL, 1:3:8]
He arrived in Louisiana on the Duc de Noailles in 1719 as a lieutenant, but his given name is unknown. Dumont reported that he was of Basque origin. He was promoted to captain in 1723 and wounded at Natchez in a duel with Jean-François Pasquier. In 1728, he was named commandant of Fort Rosalie at Natchez. Broutin, Dumont, Le Page du Pratz, and others blamed him for provoking the catastrophic Natchez attacks of 1729, which cost Chepart his life. [FFL, “de Chépart,” 2:2:24–25]
Commissaire ordonnateur of the navy at Port-Louis from 1742–1761.
Coëtlogon, Louis-Emmanuel, comte de (born in 1709)
Commissioned as a half-pay lieutenant in 1720 and as captain of a company in 1722 (at age thirteen), he led a distinguished military career in the War of the Austrian succession, part of it under Belle-Isle at Prague and then in Brittany, where, in 1746, he commanded at Lorient and Port-Louis in the absence of Governor Rothelin.
In the Mémoires historiques, this is the name of the carpenter (charpentier) who was logging cypress trees along the Mississippi opposite Natchez at the time of the revolt. Périer wrote that he was one of the first two people to bring news of the mas-sacre to New Orleans.
Coustilhas [Coustillars], Jacques de (died in 1738 or 1739)
Came to Louisiana on the Union in 1719 as a sublieutenant and in 1720 advanced to lieutenant. In the 1720s, he owned a farm on the left bank of the Mississippi just below New Orleans. Served as captain and commandant of the Natchez post in 1732–1733 and participated in the First Chickasaw War as well as the Second, when he assisted in the construction of Fort de l'Entrepos. Following his death, the Superior Council heard protracted disputes over his debts and estate. [FFL, 2:1:84–85]
Listed among soldiers serving the Company of the West who embarked on the Victoire in 1718. [FFL, 4:2:69]
Crenay [Crenet], Henri de Poilvilain, baron de (died in 1736)
A captain under Louboëy, royal lieutenant at Mobile from 1730, and commandant of the post at the Alabamons in 1732–1733. He drew a fine manuscript map of Louisiana. [FFL, “de Crenay,” 2:2:24–25]
Crozat [Croisac, Croizac], Antoine
Born into a family of merchants in Toulouse, he became a very wealthy financier and patron of the arts. In 1712, the king granted him a fifteen-year monopoly for trade with Louisiana but ended it in 1717, when it was turned over to Law and the Company of the Indies.
Served as French minister of war from 1728 to 1740.
Came to Louisiana on the Gironde in 1720 and served as a warehouse keeper and manager of the concession at Pascagoula, owned by Chaumont. A New Orleans census of 1727 indicated that he also owned a residence on Chartres Street. [FFL, “La Garde,” 1:1:51]
Deliette [de Liette], Pierre Charles (died in 1729)
A brother of Charles-Henri Joseph de Liette, he was from an Italian family and a cousin of Henri and Alphonse Tonty. He was commandant in the Illinois country from 1704 to 1718 and was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1718 and a captain in 1720, but then resigned and returned to Montreal. During his time in Illinois, he wrote the “Mémoire de De Gannes” preserved as part of a large, four-volume manuscript held at the Newberry Library (Ayer MS 293, III, 264–362). It was published in Illinois Historical Collections, XXIII (Springfield, Ill., 1934), 302–395. Later, he served briefly as commandant at Natchez in 1723 and returned to Illinois in 1725 until his death. [FFL, “Desliettes,” 2:2:54]
See Simars de Belleisle
Delorme (died in 1729)
He came to Louisiana on the Alexandre in 1720 and was a director of the Company of the Indies until December 1722. As Dumont indicates, he was dismissed from his post due to accusations of corruption and smuggling. Nevertheless, the Company appointed him to a new commission in 1729, but he died at Saint-Domingue on the way back to Louisiana. [FFL, 1:1:28–29, 1:3:11]
Royal lieutenant at Port-Louis from 1746 to 1752, replacing Ricquebourg.
A Canadian and a cousin of Bienville, he participated with Dumont in the establishment of Old Biloxi in 1719 under Valdeterre. In a 1721 census, he is listed as living in the region of Chaouachas and the English Turn, with no wife or children but one Indian and six African slaves. In a 1726 census, he is residing in the same location as owner of seventy arpents of cultivated land, as well as nine Indian and thirty African slaves.
Desnoyers [de Noyers, Denoyers], Laurent (died in 1729)
A second sergeant at Yazoo in 1722, then adjutant major and manager of the Terre Blanche concession at Natchez at the time of the revolt. [FFL, 2:2:55]
The wife of Laurent Desnoyers, she spoke the Natchez and / or Mobilien language well, and following the Natchez revolt, she served as an interpreter during the siege of 1730. After the death of her first husband, she married one Sieur Joye, nicknamed Rougeau, or Roujot.
Diron d'Artaguiette [d'Artaguette], Bernard
Younger brother of Martin d'Artaguiette, they arrived in Louisiana together on the Renommé in 1707. He was appointed lieutenant in 1716 and captain in 1717 and became a concessionaire at Baton Rouge. He was a director of the Company of the Indies at La Rochelle when Dumont sailed from that port in 1718. From 1728–1738, he was commandant at Mobile, and then he quarrelled with Bienville over policy toward the Chickasaws and relocated to Saint-Domingue. His narrative of his voyage up the Mississippi to Natchez was published in translation in 1916 (“Journal of Diron d'Artaguiette, Inspector General of Louisiana, 1722–1723,” in Newton D. Mereness, ed., Travels in the American Colonies [New York, 1916], 15–92). [FFL, 2:2:71–74]
Employed by the Company of the Indies as a carpenter, 1728. [FFL, 6:2:36]
Ducouder [Ducoud, Decoder, Ducauder]
He was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1720 and was commandant at Yazoo in 1729 when he was killed in the Natchez revolt. His brother Pierre-Laurent was a second lieutenant in 1736 when he was captured by the Chickasaws. [FFL, “Docoder,” 2:2:74]
He was listed in 1722 and 1731 as a habitant at Pointe Coupée on the Mississippi.
Captain of a Company of the Indies vessel, the Portefaix, armed at Lorient on February 22, 1721, and destined for Louisiana.
Dufresne [Dufreine, du Freine], Bertrand
Director of John Law's concession near the mouth of the Arkansas River beginning in March 1722, when he arrived there with Bénard de la Harpe and Dumont. He voyaged to Louisiana on the Venus from Lorient in 1721, attached to the Mezières concession. He appears on a list of Company of the Indies employees in March 1724, at the Arkansas post.
A Canadian who arrived in Louisiana in 1708. In a 1721 census, he is listed as a habitant at Bayou Saint John, where he owned three African and three Indian slaves.
Manager of the Saint Catherines concession at Natchez in the 1720s. In 1720, he embarked on the Saint André, bound for Louisiana from Lorient, listed as an officer and as the director of the concession of Mssrs. Deucher and Coëtlogon. Upon arrival, he became the resident director of the Saint Catherines concession, later owned by Kolly, with more than one hundred arpents of land.
Dumont, Jean-François, Geneviève, Marie-Anne-Françoise, Pierre-Jean-Baptiste
See “The Dumont Family,” above.
Dumont de Montigny, Jean-François-Benjamin
The author is included in FFL, 2:2:90.
Dumouchel de Villainville, Claude
A nephew of Marc-Antoine Hubert, he came to Louisiana in 1716 as ensign and became a captain in 1719. He replaced Valdeterre as captain of a company in 1720. He was reproved by Périer for cowardice during the Natchez war of 1730. [FFL, 2:2:91]
Dupart, Jean-Baptiste (died c. 1742–1744)
Captain in a Swiss regiment, he also held a commission as a lieutenant from Rochefort in 1722. He took part in the First Chickasaw War and died at New Orleans. [FFL, 2:2:92–93]
Listed as an ensign in 1722, he rose to the rank of adjutant major for troops of the Company of the Indies by 1727. [Possibly the father among the father and son who appear under “Dupuy Planchard,” FFL, 2:2:96–97]
A soldier listed in a 1726 census as a resident of Illinois, married and owning five arpents of land.
Dutisné, Claude-Charles (died in 1730)
Born in about 1690 in Paris, he came to Quebec in 1705 with a commission as an ensign. In 1708, he married Marie-Anne Gaultier de Gaudarville, who brought him the title of Seigneur de Gaudarville from her first husband and left it to him when she died in 1711. He remarried two years later, and his second wife accompanied him when he was assigned to the post at Kaskaskia in Illinois. In addition to service at Wabash and Kaskaskia, he helped to establish Fort Rosalie at Natchez in 1716 and served as commandant there from 1723–1726. According to a letter by Father Raphaël de Luxembourg, who claimed that Dumont had written him with the information, Dutisné was homosexual. He escaped the Natchez Massacre because he had been assigned to command Fort de Chartres in the Illinois country in 1729, but he died shortly afterward from wounds sustained in an attack by Fox (Renard) Indians.
The son of Claude-Charles and his first wife, he served in Illinois for some years and led a convoy from the Missouri River country to Fort de Chartres in 1725. Married the widow of one Girardot in 1731 and was chosen to accompany Pierre Groston de Saint-Ange to Missouri in 1734. In March 1736, he was part of the expedition of Pierre d'Artaguiette against the Chickasaws, where he lost his life. [FFL, 2:2:103]
Duverger, Bernard (died in 1766)
A native of Béarn in southwestern France, he came to Louisiana in 1720 and was commissioned as an engineer and half-pay lieutenant in 1724. Served at that rank in the siege of the Natchez in 1730. Took leave in France in 1730–1733 and, on his return, was commissioned as a captain and engineer. With Broutin, he surveyed routes for French troops to approach the Chickasaw villages in the Second Chickasaw War and was held partly responsible for the failure of that campaign. Nonetheless, he remained in the colony, working at La Balize and elsewhere, and was appointed chief engineer in 1752 and awarded the Croix de Saint Louis. [FFL, “de Vergés,” 6:1:11–15]
Enville [Anville], Jean-Baptiste-Louis-Frédéric de la Rochefoucauld de Roye, duc d' (1704–1746)
In spite of scant experience at sea, his aristocratic pedigree and the influence of Maurepas (minister of the marine) earned d'Enville an appointment as lieutenant general of the navy in 1745. The following year, he was placed in command of a large expedition to recapture the fortified city of Louisbourg, and, with it, the rest of Acadia, from the English. Storms, illness, and all-around misfortune led to the deaths of more than two thousand troops as well as d'Enville himself.
Estivant de la Perrière [Lestievant de la Perriere]
Warehouse keeper at the Yazoo post in 1722 and, later, at the Company of the Indies warehouse in New Biloxi. Possibly the same as Estienne de la Perrière, who served as an engineer at New Orleans in 1719.
Femme Chef, of the Natchez
The Natchez had a matrilineal, exogamous kinship structure under which the husband of the femme soleille, or female Sun (chief), was from the lowest caste—the stin-kards—but their son was in line to be the future male Sun, or Great Chief, as Dumont calls him. Dumont wrote that his own future wife, Marie Baron, was held prisoner by the female chief during the winter of 1729–1730. However, Le Page du Pratz, whose account of the 1729 massacre agrees with Dumont's in other respects, identified the femme soleille as Bras Piqué, whom he knew at Natchez and spoke with in New Orleans when she was captured by the French in 1730. He even claimed that the Grand Soleil at the time of the revolt was her son by a French father. Dumont does not give any proper name for the femme chef, so it is impossible to know whether the two authors referred to the same woman.
Captain of the Company of the Indies vessel Les Deux Frères, armed at La Rochelle on July 22, 1720, with the initial destination of Lorient.
Fleuriau, François (died in 1752)
The son of a prosecutor in Rennes, he became a magistrate at parlement and then, in 1723, was named crown prosecutor for Louisiana. He was also a member of the Superior Council, but he quarreled with La Chaise. He married and lived in the colony until his death.
A surgeon at Natchez from 1726 to 1728. His house appears on Dumont's map of the area (“Carte du fort Rozalie des Natchez françois,” ANF, Cartes et plans, N III, no. 12 [Louisiane]). He moved to Illinois in 1732.
A director of the Company of the Indies from 1734. Dumont encountered him in Paris after Dumont returned from Louisiana.
A habitant at Bayou Saint John just outside New Orleans, he is listed in a 1721 census as having a wife and two children, and owning ten African and two Indian slaves.
Graveline, Jean-Baptiste Baudreau dit
A Canadian who came to Louisiana in the colony's early days and established himself on Dauphin Island, then at Pascagoula, where he had a large concession. He was later one of the first habitants on the Bayou Saint John. In 1726, the Superior Council granted him a large concession there, and he supervised work to make the bayou navigable for larger boats.
Graves [Grave, de Graves]
Captain of a company in the troops of the Le Blanc / Belle-Isle concessions, in which Dumont was a lieutenant, during the voyage to Yazoo in 1721. In 1723, he abandoned his post at Yazoo to become a manager of the Le Blanc / Belle-Isle concession at Natchez. He was accused of selling Company of the Indies merchandise for his own personal profit. [FFL, “Graves,” 2:3:30, and “Desgraves,” 2:2:53]
Grondel, Jean-Philippe Goujon de (1714–1807)
Born in Saverne in Alsace of Swiss parents in 1714, he came to Louisiana in 1732 along with his father, who was also an officer in Karrer's Swiss regiment. He was celebrated in the colony for his gaiety, his duels, and his daring. As Dumont writes, he was seriously wounded in the 1736 Chickasaw war, but contrary to Dumont's report, it appears Grondel did not die of these wounds. He was made captain in 1750 and (p.427) awarded the Croix de Saint Louis. He married a daughter of the elder Dutisné. In the 1760s, he quarreled with then-governor Kerloret and returned to France; Kerloret pursued the grudge and had him imprisoned in the Bastille, but he was quickly exonerated. Toward the end of his long life, he was a strong supporter of Napoleon Bona-parte. [FFL, “Goujon de Gondel,” 2:3:25–29]
Guenot de Tréfontaine [Guenaut], Pierre (died in 1723)
Along with his brother, Guenot was an investor in Law's scheme and came to Louisiana in 1717 on the Paon or the Duclos. In 1719, they were clearing a plantation in Chopitoulas. After selling that concession, he became a deputy director of the Saint Catherines concession at Natchez, where he supervised the planting of tobacco. In October 1722, he was wounded in a Natchez attack in a forest between Fort Rosalie and the concession, and he died a few months later at New Orleans. According to both Bienville and Dumont, he had provoked this attack by imprisoning one of the Natchez Suns.
Heudicourt, Gœuri Sublet, marquis d'
The marquis who, alongside l'Hôpital, advocated the surrender of Lorient was likely Gœuri Sublet, comte d'Heudicourt and then, after 1737, marquis d'Heudicourt.
Hombourg [Domsbourg], Jean-Frédéric, baron d'
An Alsatian who commanded one of the Swiss regiments deployed in Louisiana in the 1720s.
Hôpital, marquis de l’
Commander of a regiment of dragoons, he organized the defense of Lorient in 1746.
Commissaire ordonnateur of Louisiana in 1716, he became, after the end of Crozat's control of the colony, the director general under the Company of the West and then commissaire ordonnateur once again in 1718–1720. In 1719, he decided to take up residence at Natchez, where Bienville and Le Gac had granted him a concession, later known as Saint Catherines. In 1720, he sold this property to Kolly, and Le Page du Pratz brokered the sale. He returned to France in 1722, penniless, and requested a pension from the Company of the Indies. [FFL, 1:1:50]
Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne d' (1661–1706)
The third son of Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay and Catherine Thierry, d'Iberville earned fame for leading naval expeditions against the English in Hudson Bay and Newfoundland. In 1698–1699, he led an expedition to locate the mouth of the Mississippi River and constructed a fort at Biloxi, leaving behind a garrison led by his younger brother Bienville. On a second voyage in 1700, he established a temporary fort on the Mississippi River, and a third expedition in 1701 led (p.428) to the founding of Mobile. He left Louisiana for the last time in 1702 but was active in the defense of France's Caribbean colonies until his death at Havana, Cuba. [FFL, 1:4:30–33]
Elie Jaspie is listed as captain of the Marie, a Company of the Indies ship armed at La Rochelle on May 15, 1719, bound for Louisiana.
Joly Coeur, Louis Colet dit
A sergeant responsible for a fire that destroyed eleven houses at Old Biloxi in the winter of 1720–1721. A 1727 New Orleans census lists a woman named “Colier” and a sergeant called “Jollycoeur” living together in the rue Clairemont with two children.
Juchereau de Saint Denis, Louis (1676–1744)
Born in Quebec, he accompanied d'Iberville on his second voyage to Louisiana. From 1700 to 1712, he explored the basins of the Red and Ouachita Rivers, and in 1713, Lamothe Cadillac, then governor of Louisiana, put him in charge of an expedition that established a post at the site of modern Natchitoches, Louisiana. From there, he continued to the Spanish garrison of San Juan Bautista (today's Piedras Negras, Mexico). Dumont recounted the story of his imprisonment in Mexico City at the end of the memoir, as did Le Page du Pratz (Histoire de la Louisiane, I, 1–24) and Pénicaut (Fleur de Lys and Calumet, 146–153, 183–203, 220–227). During the battles with the Spanish in 1719, he was active in the defense of Mobile and the retaking of Pensacola. After some of the Natchez fled to the Natchitoches area in 1730, his garrison attacked and dispersed them. He continued to live at the Natchitoches post until his death. [FFL, 2:3:58–61]
Juif, Jean-Claude (died in 1723)
In spite of his name, which means “the Jew,” he was a Catholic chaplain for the LeBlanc / Belle-Isle concession at Yazoo. He sailed to Louisiana with Le Blond de la Tour and soldiers on the Dromadaire in 1720.
Juzan, Gabriel de (died in 1736)
A half-pay lieutenant under Périer, he mounted an expedition up the Ouachita River in 1732–1733 to track down refugee Natchez. He served as an adjutant major at Mobile and at Dauphin Island in 1734 and under Noyan in the First Chickasaw War. In Dumont's epic poem, he is mortally wounded in this war but gives a rousing speech to inspire Dumont and other troops. In June 1736, the Superior Council assigned a tutor to his son Pierre. [FFL, 2:3:63–64]
Kerloret [Kerlorec], chevalier de
The man Dumont mentions is, not Louis Billouart de Kerlérec, governor of Louisiana in 1752–1763, but a commandant of troops who sailed to Louisiana on the Atlas in 1739 to participate in the Second Chickasaw War. [FFL, 2:3:65]
Director of the Saint Catherines concession at Natchez, which he purchased from Hubert in 1721. Kolly invested a large sum of money in John Law's scheme but was one of only a few concessionaires to travel to Louisiana to attempt to recoup his losses. As Dumont reports, he and his son were both killed in the Natchez revolt.
La Boulaye (died in 1732)
Obtained a commission as a sublieutenant in 1720, replacing Andriot. He traveled to the Arkansas River in 1721 to establish a concession, which Dumont visited in February 1722. Promoted to lieutenant in 1730, he was discharged in the year of his death. [FFL, 2:4:2–3]
La Chaise, Jacques de (1675–1730)
Nephew of the confessor of Louis XIV, Père La Chaise, for whom the famous cemetery in Paris is named, he was chosen by the Council of the Marine in 1722 to go to Louisiana together with Saunoy to audit the finances of the Company of the Indies. He arrived in April 1723 and served on the Superior Council and conseil de la régie. He died in New Orleans, and his son continued to serve in various influential positions in Louisiana. [FFL, “de la Chaise,” 1:1:26]
La Corne de Chaptes, Jean-Louis de (1666–1732)
A major at Trois-Rivières in 1714 and at Quebec in 1716, he became royal lieutenant at Montreal in 1726.
La France, Jacques Joignier dit
According to a 1716 census of Quebec, he ran an inn in the Upper Town, on the rue de Buade.
La Galissonnière, Roland Barrin de
The father of Roland-Michel Barrin de la Galissonnière (1693–1756), who was commandant general of New France during the 1740s.
La Garde, Joseph de
Major de la place in Lorient and Port-Louis in the 1720s.
La Jeunesse (died in 1729)
Father Philibert's list of the victims of the Natchez uprising includes “Pierre Billy, dit La Jeunesse,” likely the man who traveled with Dumont.
La Jonchère, Gérard-Michel de (1675–1750)
Rich financier and partner with Belle-Isle, d'Asfeld, and Le Blanc in several concessions in Louisiana. In 1711, he was appointed trésorier de l'extraordinaire des guerres, a post empowered to collect reparations from defeated enemies and called “extraordinary” inasmuch as it operated outside the ministry of finance. A commission (p.430) appointed to investigate his finances found that he had used the post to enrich himself, and in 1723, he was arrested, ordered to repay more than one million livres, and banned from holding financial appointments. For two years, he was imprisoned in the Bastille, where he nonetheless enjoyed his own furniture and library, wrote a journal, and maintained correspondence. He later held the post of treasurer of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis.
La Pointe, Joseph Simon dit
A Canadian habitant who, after the end of Crozat's administration of the Louisiana colony, built a house on the Pascagoula River, which is identified on the maps Dumont drew of that region (“Carte de la riviere de Pascagoula …,” BNF, Ge DD 2987, and “Carte de la riverre des Pascagoulas …,” ANF, Cartes et plans, 6 JJ 75, collection Delisle, pièce 262).
La Salle, Pierre de
A native of Carcassonne, Dumont wrote that La Salle sailed over with him on the Portefaix as a simple soldier, but he quickly rose to be a warehouse keeper at New Biloxi. He appears in a March 8, 1724, list of employees of the Company of the Indies in Louisiana as being at Biloxi and receiving a salary of six hundred livres. His death and burial were registered at New Orleans December 9, 1728, at about fifty-six years of age. [FFL, 1:1:57]
A habitant at Bayou Saint John. His residence is indicated on one of Dumont's maps of the New Orleans area (“Carte de la province de la Louisiane,” SHD, Château de Vincennes, receuil 68, no. 74).
Law, John (1671–1729)
Born in Edinburgh, he came to France in 1715 to offer his services to the regent Philippe d'Orléans after the death of Louis XIV. The French national debt was enormous, and Law was given authority to create a national bank and issue currency that would replace the gold coin in circulation. In 1717, he obtained, for a twenty-five-year term, the monopoly privileges of the Company of the West formerly held by Antoine Crozat, with the understanding that he would settle the Louisiana colony with at least six thousand Europeans and three thousand African slaves and thus provide a buffer against Spanish and English influence in the region. Capitalization for this enterprise was set at two hundred thousand shares paying 4 percent dividends. The operation enabled Law to retire sixty million livres of state debt. The shares in his company rose quickly, creating the so-called Mississippi Bubble, inflated by promotional tracts that created an image of Louisiana as a paradise with abundant mineral wealth. However, in the autumn of 1720, the scheme collapsed, along with the South Sea Bubble, which burst at the same time in England. An economic depression spread across Europe; Law fled France and died in Venice.
A “Jacques White, dit Le Blanc” purchased a house in Port-Louis in 1735, at 15 rue des Dames.
Le Blanc, Louis-Claude (1669–1728)
Son of Louis Le Blanc, intendant of Normandy, he was named to the council of war in 1716 and assumed the post of minister of war upon the dissolution of the polysynodie system in 1718. He entered into partnership with Belle-Isle and La Jonchère to invest in concessions in Louisiana under Law's scheme in 1719. When La Jonchère was accused of financial corruption in 1723, Le Blanc was implicated and forced to resign. He was imprisoned for several months in the Bastille, but then acquitted. He served again as minister of war from 1726 until his death.
Le Blond de la Tour, Louis-Pierre (died in 1723)
An engineer who drew several fine maps of the colony, he arrived in Louisiana in 1714 and served as a lieutenant in Alabama in 1716. He quarreled with Governor Cadillac and returned to France, only to make a second voyage on the Dromadaire, along with one or two of his brothers. He led the troops assigned to the concessions of Le Blanc / Belle-Isle, in which Dumont served. As chief engineer in the colony in 1721, he supervised the planning of New Orleans. Died on board the Bellonne before the ship set sail for France. [FFL, 1:3:19, 2:4:25–27, and “Boispinel de Latour,” his brother, 6:1:5–6]
A priest and professor of hydrography and mathematics at the Séminaire de Québec in the 1710s.
Le Gac, Charles
Arrived at Dauphin Island in 1718 as director in the colony for the Company of the Indies. As he writes in a memoir translated and published in 1970, he managed the Company during a difficult period, when hundreds of settlers arrived only to be left unsupported after the collapse of Law's financial scheme. [FFL, 1:1:60]
Léry [De Lery, Deléry] and Le Sueur
Dumont errs, both in the manuscript memoir [original pages 229–230] and in the Mémoires historiques (II, 171), in giving the name Léry to the officer who led the first expedition to retaliate against the Natchez in January and February 1730. That officer was actually Jean-Paul Le Sueur, a son of Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, who had voyaged the length of the Mississippi River in 1700 and who made the first accurate map of the river. Pierre-Charles's wife, the mother of Jean-Paul, was a cousin of Bienville. Léry, or Deléry, was an officer who played a key role in the First Chickasaw War, according to Bienville's narrative of that war, which also mentions Jean-Paul Le Sueur. For more, see Chapter 6, n. 17, below. [FFL, “De Léry,” 2:2:34–36; and “Chauvin de Léry, 2:1:69–71. The two entries are nearly identical and must refer to one man.]
Another victim of the massacre, he had previously been the clerk of the Company of the Indies at Illinois, was serving at Natchez as Company clerk and as judge, and apparently had fathered children with his Natchez wife. According to Broutin and Diron d'Artaguiette, he had warned Chepart and even Périer of the danger of a revolt. [FFL, “Antoine de la Loire des Ursins,” 1:1:28; “Marc-Antoine de la Loire des Ursins,” 1:1:54–55; and “De la Loire des Ursins,” 1:3:10, though it is not clear that these are three separate individuals]
Longraye [de Longraye, Delongray, des Longrais] (died in 1729)
Director of the Saint Catherines concession at Natchez following the attack on Pierre Guenot in October 1722 that set off a skirmish between the French and Natchez. Killed in the Natchez Massacre.
Louboëy [Loubois], Henri, chevalier de (died in 1749)
Served as an officer in France beginning in 1690 or 1691 and was sent to Louisiana in 1716. In 1721, he was listed as a captain and commander at Biloxi. In 1723, he was listed as the captain of a company at Mobile. In 1729, he received a commission as major of New Orleans. Led the first expedition against the Natchez following the uprising, December 1729–February 1730, and directed the siege of the Natchez forts. In 1731, he is listed as chevalier de Louboëy, royal lieutenant at New Orleans. On leave in France in 1735, he returned to Louisiana in 1737 and in 1740 was assigned to Mobile, where he died at an advanced age. [FFL, 2:4:46–51]
Lusser [Lucer], Joseph Christophe de (died in 1736)
Commissioned as an ensign in 1718, as lieutenant in 1720, and as captain in 1730. Périer ordered him to go to the Choctaws in 1730 to recruit warriors for an expedition against the Natchez. Served as captain commandant at Tombigbee in 1735 and was killed in the attack on Ackia. [FFL, 2:4:54–55]
Macarty de Mactigue, Jean-Jacques (c. 1706–1764)
Born in France of Irish parents and might have come to Louisiana in 1720 or as late as 1732. Listed as a musketeer, promoted to adjutant major in 1732, to captain in 1735, awarded the Croix de Saint Louis in 1750, and finally became royal lieutenant at New Orleans in 1759. During several return visits to France, he served as recruiter of soldiers to go to Louisiana. [FFL, 2:5:3–7]
Manadé (died in 1737 or 1738)
A surgeon at New Orleans, 1724–1728, and subsequently chief surgeon there. Manadé appears in the 1726 census as being married and owning forty arpents of land. [FFL, 6:2:19]
Mansillière [Mancelière], Jean Gravé de la
Captain of the Company of the Indies ship Union, which sailed from La Rochelle to Louisiana in 1719. Dumont mentions him again as commanding the Venus on its (p.433) voyage from Lorient in 1721, but he was instead listed as a passenger on that ship and an administrator of the Mezières concession. He immediately returned to France on the same ship. Nonetheless, a Mansillière is included in the 1732 census as a land-owner in New Orleans.
Massé [Macé], Sieur de (died in 1729)
A close ally of Bienville and enemy of Périer. A lieutenant to Chepart at Natchez, where he and his wife were killed in the uprising. His eight-year-old son, who witnessed the killings, survived, was raised by Louboëy, and went on to a military career in the colony. [FFL, 2:5:17]
Maur de Tronquidy
Archives in Brittany have revealed that this was the name of M. Benier's clerk who was involved in a lawsuit with Dumont in 1747 concerning a debt that the latter had supposedly entered into while the two men were living in New Orleans. He came to Louisina on the Gironde in 1720 and was serving as an inspector in 1723. In 1727, he sold two lots and a house in New Orleans.
Merveilleux, François-Louis de
Came to Louisiana on the Mutine in 1720 as a captain in the Swiss Karrer regiment, organized by his older brother. The family name was “von Wunderlich” in German. His younger brother Jean-Pierre was a soldier in the regiment. In 1727, he was named commandant of the Natchez post, but after only a few months, he was replaced by Chepart. After the Natchez revolt, he was sent to warn residents along the Mississippi River. He returned to France in 1733–1734. Certain historians believe he is the author of the anonymous “Relation de la Lousiane” (VAULT Ayer MS 530, Newberry Library) as well as a short manuscript account of the Natchez revolt, held in Rheims. [FFL, 2:5:30–31]
Mesplet (died in 1730)
Listed as a native of Pau and among the victims of the Natchez Massacre, although he was actually killed in January 1730 when he volunteered to scout Natchez positions and try to release captives. His estate included 1,163 lbs. of tobacco, nine deerskins, tools, glassware, and a copy of a book described as “‘Voyage to the South Sea’ with prints.” [FFL, “Misplet,” 6:1:55]
Mezières [Mesierre, Mexierre, Mezierre], Louis Christophe or Claude Mauguet
This family was one of the major investors in Louisiana concessions under John Law's system and was related by marriage to Juchereau de Saint Denis. Dumont does not refer to any specific member of the family.
A Canadian and one of the first habitants on Dauphin Island. A neighboring island close to Mobile Bay was named after him, as well as a bayou in the Atchafalaya Basin.
An officer who embarked on the Profond in 1720, bound for Louisiana from La Rochelle. He appears in a 1727 census as a surgeon at Mobile for the Company of the Indies. Dumont, in Mémoires historiques, II, 173–175, and Le Page du Pratz, in Histoire de la Louisiane, II, 266–267, both wrote that he spoke the Natchez language well and had a Natchez mate who helped him survive the initial revolt; but he subsequently died, along with Mesplet, in a sortie against the Natchez in 1730. [FFL, 6:2:20]
Nouailles [Nouailles d'Aymé]
Arrived from France in June 1739, as commandant of troops sent for the second war against the Chickasaws. He appears to have avoided any punishment for the failure of his expedition. [FFL, 2:5:50–51]
Noyan, Gilles-Augustin Payen de (died in 1751)
A lieutenant who arrived in Louisiana on the Victoire in 1718 and participated in the battles for Pensacola. A nephew of Bienville, he advanced the interests of his uncle during Périer's command of the colony. Married Jeanne Faucon Dumanoir in New Orleans on May 1, 1735. As commander of a detachment during the First Chickasaw War, he was wounded at Ackia in 1736. Received the Croix de Saint Louis in October 1736. Also served in the Second Chickasaw War and reached the rank of adjutant major and, finally, royal lieutenant by the time of his death in New Orleans, where he owned many properties. [FFL, “Payen de Noyan,” 2:5:54–59]
Pailloux [Payou, Payon], Jacques Barbazon de
A native of the Cévennes and originally a Protestant. Served as major general of Louisiana, where he arrived in 1707, and led the construction of the first Fort Rosalie at Natchez in 1716–1717. In November 1722, Bienville named him to lead an expedition against the Natchez Indians, and he was involved in the battles in the fall of 1723 as well, though this led to his being punished and demoted. He returned to France in 1724. [FFL, “Barbazant de Pailloux,” 2:1:10–11]
Papin (died in 1729)
Interpreter at Natchez, killed in the uprising there. Arrived in Louisiana on the Chameau in 1720, listed as an edge-tool maker employed at the concession of Dartagnan. A René Papin is listed in a census of 1726 as living at the concession of Le Page du Pratz in Natchez, with a wife and two children. [FFL, 6:1:27]
Pauger, Adrien (died in 1726)
Chief engineer for the Louisiana colony, he arrived in 1721 and helped to plan New Orleans as well as designed the first fort of La Balize at the outlet of the Mississippi River. He served on the Superior Council of Louisiana, received the Croix de Saint Louis, and was buried in New Orleans. [FFL, 6:1:20–21]
His full title was duc de Penthièvre, d'Aumale, de Rambouillet et de Gisors. Born at Rambouillet, he was the only son of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon (1678–1737), comte de Toulouse, duc de Penthièvre (a son of Louis XIV and of Madame de Montespan), and Marie Victoire de Noailles. He succeeded his father in the titles of Admiral of France and governor of Brittany in December 1737.
Périer, Etienne (1690–1755)
Born in Le Havre, he began his military career in the gardes de la marine in Brest in 1717. Later, he commanded a ship for the Company of the Indies. He was appointed commandant general of Louisiana in 1726 and arrived in March 1727 to replace Bienville. He requested for himself, and received, the Croix de Saint Louis. He responded to news of the Natchez Massacre by ordering African slaves and native allies to destroy the Chaouachas village just below New Orleans. With his brother, he led the attack on the Natchez at Sicily Island in modern Concordia Parish, Louisiana, in December of 1730. Was recalled to France in 1732 and resumed service as a ship's captain out of Brest until his death. [FFL, 1:4:37–38]
Périer de Salvert, Antoine
Brother of Etienne Périer, he was serving in Senegal before being sent to Louisiana in 1730–1732 to assist in the retaliations following the Natchez Massacre. After his time in Louisiana, he continued his service in the navy and rose to the rank of chef d'escadre. [FFL, 2:5:67]
Mayor of the city of Lorient from September 12, 1736, to March 11, 1762.
Perrier (died in 1718)
Named chief engineer of Louisiana in 1718 by the Company of the Indies and embarked on the Victoire. He died en route. [FFL, 6:1:22]
Petit de Livilliers [de Petit-Leuilliers], Charles (c. 1702–1738)
Baptised at Boucherville, Quebec, where his father was an officer in the marines. In 1720, he was commissioned as a sublieutenant and then a lieutenant, along with Dumont, in the troops assigned to the Le Blanc / Belle-Isle concessions. He appears in the census of 1724 at a habitation on the Mississippi in the German Coast area, listed as M. Petit de Livilliers, aged twenty-two, an officer from Canada, with a son, five negroes, and two Indians. He married Louise de Malbec, or Malbeque, at New Orleans in 1726. In 1736, he took part in the disastrous expedition of Pierre d'Artaguiette against the Chickasaw Indians. Killed in a duel with Macarty de Mactigue. [FFL, 2:5:67–68]
Petit Soleil (died in 1723)
A Natchez Sun, war chief of the Pomme village; also, he was a brother of Serpent Piqué and of the Great Sun of the Grand village. In the First Natchez War of 1716, (p.436) Bienville detained the three men as hostages, until Petit Soleil was sent off to kill and deliver up to Bienville the heads of three men said to be responsible for deaths of five Frenchmen. Petit Soleil was later identified by Bienville as one of the instigators of the 1723 conflict with French colonists. Whereas Dumont reports that he was killed by the Tunica chief Cahura-Joligo, the anonymous manuscript “Punishment of the Natchez in 1723” (BNF, MSS fr. 2550, 3–10) reports simply that he was one of two Natchez leaders killed next to the temple in the Pomme village or the Noyers (Jenzenaques) village in late October of that year.
Treasurer at Quebec, possibly Jean-Louis Plessy dit Bélair, a tanner and merchant born in Montreal in 1678.
Postillon (died in 1729)
In Philibert's list of victims of the Natchez Massacre, he is identified as a soldier and a native of Abbeville. His wife survived and married an Aubergiste, an innkeeper (or a man who bore that as a name) from Avignon.
Poulain, Gabriel (died in 1729)
Interpreter of Indian languages. A native of Paris, he is listed in a 1726 census with a wife, three “engages,” and eight arpents of land. Killed in the Natchez uprising.
Poulain, Mme de
Wife of the interpreter, she was wounded in the Natchez uprising but survived. She later married a man named Vandome.
Renault [Renaud], Philippe
A surveyor and director of mines in the Illinois country from 1726 to the early 1730s. [FFL, 1:2:15]
Renaut d'Hauterive [Renaud] (c. 1696–1741)
Came to Louisiana in 1720 on the Aventurier. Served as captain commandant at Yazoo and at Natchitoches in 1722–1724 but then returned to New Orleans. Fought in the battles against the Natchez in 1730. After returning to France for a leave in the early 1730s, he later served as a captain of grenadiers in the First Chickasaw War in 1736 and was wounded at Ackia. Recommended for the Croix de Saint Louis. Died at Saint Jean-Baptiste on the Mississippi River's German Coast. [FFL, 2:6:7–9]
Charles Requient, a locksmith or metalworker from Poitiers, is in a list of workers for the Company who embarked on the Dauphiné in 1719, bound for Louisiana from La Rochelle. The wife of a man named Requiem appears on a list of those who died at Old Fort Biloxi between 1720 and 1723. She died on January 14, 1721. [FFL, 6:2:55]
Dumont reports that the Sieur Ricard was one who escaped the Natchez Massacre and brought news to New Orleans (Mémoires historiques, II, 149, 170). It may be his widow and child Richard who are included on Philibert's list of those killed in the Massacre.
Richebourg, Louis Poncereau de Chavagne de
Came to Louisiana in May 1713 as a half-pay captain, became a captain in 1714, and was part of Bienville's circle of trusted officers during a time when Bienville was opposed by Governor Cadillac. In 1716, Bienville sent him to Natchez, where he dealt with the first violent conflict with that tribe and helped establish the post there, events he detailed in his manuscript “Mémoire sur la première guerre des Natchez.” Given the Croix de Saint Louis in 1717, he was named a captain of a company of soldiers under Chateau-gué and fought under him in the battles for Pensacola in 1719. He accompanied Jean-Gaston, chevalier des Grieux, and Jérémie de Meschin to Havana with the prisoners taken in the first French attack on Pensacola, only to be imprisoned there himself. After he was ransomed, he was appointed royal lieutenant at New Orleans in 1722 but did not wish to serve there under Pailloux. Departed for France on the Saint-André in 1722, but that ship was also detained at Havana. Might have returned in 1723, for Giraud claims that he was captain of a company into which Bienville tried to put Dumont when he was broken in rank (HLF, IV, 365). [FFL, “Chavagne de Richebourg,” 2:1:71–72]
Ricquebourg [Ricquebour], Sieur François Burin de (1674–1746)
Royal lieutenant and commandant at Port-Louis from 1722–1746. He was born in Ruis in Picardy and died in the citadel of Port-Louis.
Rigby [Ricqueby, Ricbic], Edouard (died in 1720)
A Scots Jacobite who fled to France and became an officer in the royal marines. John Law appointed him as a director of the Company of the Indies and as manager of the port of Lorient in 1719, and secured for him an appointment as royal lieutenant. He became involved in the fast-growing shipbuilding industry in Lorient and facilitated the emigration of poor German peasants who, just before the collapse of Law's scheme, were camping in the vicinity of the city in numbers as high as four thousand. He was recalled to Paris in November 1720, accused of corruption, and imprisoned in the Bastille, where he died.
Riter [Ritter], Henry (died in 1722)
He arrived in Louisiana on the Eléphant in 1720 and served as a sergeant at Yazoo. The story of how Chickasaws attacked his family's home was told by Dumont in the memoir and in the Mémoires historiques (II, 85–90), by Le Page in the Histoire de la Louisiane (II, 272–290), and by Beaurain in the HJEFL (330). [FFL, 3:2:81]
Rothelin [Rothelieu], Alexandre d'Orléans, marquis de
Louis XV appointed him as the military governor of Port-Louis on November 10, 1731. He later rose to maréchal de camp in 1734 and lieutenant general in 1748.
As a habitant at Natchez, he is listed on a 1726 census with two children and no slaves. Although Dumont conceals Roussin's name, Dumont lived in his household near the Tioux village south of Natchez and became the second husband of Rous-sin's widow, Marie Baron. Roussin is listed, with one son, among the victims of the Natchez Massacre.
Saint Denis, Sieur Denis
See Juchereau de Saint Denis
Saint Laurent, Jean-Baptiste Laurent de Montbrun (died in 1748)
A Canadian, he traveled from Illinois to Ackia as a volunteer during the First Chickasaw War. Later, he replaced Léry as leader of an expedition up the Yazoo River in 1738, served in the 1739 Chickasaw campaign, and reached the rank of half-pay lieutenant. [FFL, “Laurent de Montbrun” 2:4:18–19]
Warehouse keeper at Dauphin Island in 1719 and a lieutenant in the militia during the First Chickasaw War in 1736. He was appointed acting commissary at Mobile in 1737. [FFL, 1:2:20]
Saint-Vallier [Saint Valier, Saint Valiers], Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de (1653–1727)
Appointed Bishop of Quebec following Mgr. François-Xavier de Montmorency-Laval and arrived in the colony in 1685. During the 1690s, he quarreled with his predecessor as bishop as well as with Governor Frontenac and with the Jesuits. But he also helped found the hospital in Quebec and continued to serve as bishop until his death.
Salmon [Salmont], Etienne Gatien (died in 1745)
Commissaire ordonnateur of the Louisiana colony and chair of the Superior Council there, beginning in 1731. Reprimanded by the ministry of the marine for mismanagement of the Chickasaw campaign of 1739–1740. Feuded with Bienville and Vaudreuil and left his post to return to France in 1744. [FFL, 1:2:20–23]
Saugeon [Saugon, Saujon], Cézard-Louis Campet, chevalier de
Commander of the Deux Frères and of the convoy including the Achille, Mercure, and Content, which departed Brest on November 22, 1719, to attack the Spanish at Pensacola. [FFL, 2:6:26]
One of the two royal commissioners sent to Louisiana in 1722, along with La Chaise. He died shortly after arriving in New Orleans. [FFL, “Sauvoy,” 1:2:23]
Sérigny et de Loire, Joseph le Moyne de (1668–1734)
Sixth son of Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay and Catherine Thierry, he entered service in the French navy at Rochefort in 1686. He saw combat in the Iroquois country, in Hudson Bay, and in the Caribbean, and first came to Louisiana in 1718 as cocommandant along with his brother Bienville. Dumont describes his role in the battles for Pensacola in 1719–1720, after which he was awarded the Croix de Saint Louis. He returned to France in 1723 and was appointed governor of Rochefort, where he died. [FFL, 1:4:29–30, and 2:6:33]
Natchez Sun, war chief of the Grand village, ally of the French, and arguably the most intriguing Natchez individual in the French history of the region. Dumont wrote at length in the Mémoires historiques of the funeral ceremonies following his death on June 1, 1725, and yet the manuscript memoir indicates that he was not in Natchez then and that he met with a living Serpent Piqué after that date. Based upon his description of the tattoo that was the source of the name “Serpent Piqué,” it is likely that the name went with the office of war chief of that Natchez village.
Simars de Belleisle, François (died in 1763)
Born at Fontenayle-Comte, he received a commission as sublieutenant and embarked on the Maréchal d'Estrées from La Rochelle on August, 14, 1719. The ship went aground on the coast of Texas, and a pestilence broke out on board. He went ashore with four other men to try to reach a French post. They were captured by the Attakappas, a nation reputed to be cannibals. When Belleisle finally reached French Louisiana, he set down his adventures in a document first published by Margry, VI, 320–347, and translated into English by Henri Folmer in “De Bellisle on the Texas Coast,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XLIV (1940), 204–231. Because of his knowledge of this swampy coastal region, he took part in a 1721 expedition under Bénard de la Harpe. He later was wounded in the wars against the Natchez in 1730 and again in the First Chickasaw War of 1736. He received the Croix de Saint Louis in 1752 but subsequently quarreled with Governor Kerlérec and was stripped of his rank. Returned to France in 1762 and died in Paris. [FFL, “Scimars de Bellile,” 2:6:29–33]
Sinclair [Sainte Claire], James (1688–1762)
Member of a noble Scots family, he was commissioned an ensign in 1694 at age six and became a captain in the Royal Scots by 1708. He rose through the ranks and was general of the British forces in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession in 1745. His career did not suffer very much from the failed siege of Lorient; he was defended by the philosopher David Hume, who later served as his secretary.
Arrived in Louisiana in 1720 and served as a warehouse keeper at Natchez and Biloxi. In a 1731 census, Tisserant is listed as being married, having five children and one servant and owning thirty-three African slaves. In a 1732 census of New Orleans, he is listed as a homeowner, though not as a resident on his land. [FFL, 2:6:42–43]
Tonty, Alphonse de (1685–1727)
Younger brother of Henri de Tonty (d. 1704); together, the two accompanied Robert Cavalier de La Salle. Alphonse was born in 1685 to Lorenzo de Tonty, Baron de Paludy, and Isabelle de Liette (or di Lietto, in Italian), and died at Detroit on November 10, 1727. He served as commandant of the French forts at Michilimackinac, Frontenac, and Pontchartrain (Détroit).
Traisnel [Trenelle, Grenelle], Louise-Madeleine, marquise de
Daughter and heir to French minister of war Claude Le Blanc. Upon her father's death in 1728, she became one of the associates in the partnership that owned several concessions in Louisiana, along with Belle-Isle, La Jonchère, and d'Asfeld.
Tunicas, Chef des
Valdeterre, Prosper Drouot de
Traveled to Louisiana with Dumont on the Marie in 1719 and served as commandant of Biloxi in 1720. Sérigny wrote in a report that Valdeterre was always drunk and making speeches against the government. [FFL, “Druout de Valdeterre,” 2:2:80]
Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre de (1633–1707)
The most famous military architect in French history, designer of many citadels and forts during the reign of Louis XIV, who appointed him maréchal de France.
Vaudreuil [Vaudreuille], Philippe de Rigaud, marquis de (1643–1725)
Born in 1643, he came to Quebec in 1687 and served as governor general of New France from 1703 until his death. He was granted permission to return to France following the death of Louis XIV in 1715 but was back in Quebec in 1716, during the time of Dumont's sojourn there. He died at Quebec in 1725. His son, François-Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, later served as governor of Louisiana.
Vaudreuil de Cavagnial [Cavagnolle], Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de (1698–1778)
The fourth son of Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Pierre began his military career as an ensign in the troops of the gardes de la marine at age ten and in 1711 was promoted to lieutenant. Two years later, his father sent him to deliver an annual report to the Court in Paris. He returned to Quebec in 1715 as a captain. In 1743, he was chosen as governor of Louisiana, replacing Bienville. He stayed until 1753, when he returned to Quebec as governor general of New France. He signed the capitulation of Montreal in 1760.
Dumont conceals his name, referring to him by his title as major de la place of Port-Louis, a rank signifying an administrator of a garrison. He was a captain in the regiment of the royal marines that played a key role in the French defense during the siege of Lorient in 1746. Henri-François Buffet, the historian of Port-Louis, confirmed that he “managed a large garden near the main gate, inside the main bastion, part of the royal domain” (Buffet, Vie et société au Port-Louis des origines à Napoléon III [Rennes, 1972], 32).
Natchez Sun, either of the Gris village or the Pomme village, who was killed in 1723, and his head delivered up to the French by Serpent Piqué. His name translates as “Old Hair.” Both Dumont and Le Page wrote that the 1729 revolt was, to some extent, inspired by revenge for the death of Vieux Poil. For his part, Vieux Poil was said to have instigated the 1723 attacks to avenge the execution of his relative Le Barbu, war chief of the Jenzenaques, or Noyers, village, which Bienville demanded in 1716.
Villeneuve, M. de
A “Ville Neuve” is included on Philibert's list of victims of the Natchez Massacre with the note that he was a Gascon and that his wife and one child were also killed. His house is identified on one of Dumont's maps of Natchez (“Fort Rozalie des Natchez eloigné de la N.lle Orleans de cent lieüeues,” SHD, Château de Vincennes, État-Major, 7C 211).
Volvire, Joseph-Philippe, Seigneur de Bois de la Roche de