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Migrating FaithPentecostalism in the United States and Mexico in the Twentieth Century$
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Daniel Ramírez

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781469624068

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624068.001.0001

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Pentecostal Origins in the Borderlands

Pentecostal Origins in the Borderlands

(p.33) Chapter 1 Pentecostal Origins in the Borderlands
Migrating Faith

Daniel Ramírez

University of North Carolina Press

Mexicans and Mexican Americans eagerly joined the Azusa Street Revival and soon thereafter carried a heterodox (non-Trinitarian) variant of Pentecostalism to border zones and agricultural valleys (Imperial, Coachella, San Joaquin, Ventura, Salinas, Maricopa, etc.) and mining towns in California, Arizona, New Mexico and Baja California. This chapter sets the early growth of this self-denominated Apostolic movement against the backdrop of Mainline precursors (mostly Methodist), Pentecostal competitors (mostly Assemblies of God missionaries), and distant African American sponsors (Pentecostal Assemblies of the World). The minutes of pioneering conclaves (1925-1927) led by, among others, Francisco Llorente, Marcial de la Cruz, and Antonio Nava in southern California and Baja California reveal a developing self-understanding in terms of doctrine and social and gendered practice. On the Mexican side, the movement's practices provoked governmental alarm over charlatanism, public health, and transgressive behavior between sexes. The Archivo General de la Nación has yielded up valuable sources that document Pentecostals' resolute insistence on constitutional rights and prerogatives and Mexican officialdom's suspicion of undesirable "gringo" and "negro" influences in this evangélico upstart.

Keywords:   Oneness Pentecostalism, Llorente, De la Cruz, Llorente, Imperial Valley, Iglesia de la Fe Apostólica Pentecostés, Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Methodist, Assemblies of God, anti-clericalism

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