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Migrating FaithPentecostalism in the United States and Mexico in the Twentieth Century$
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Daniel Ramírez

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781469624068

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624068.001.0001

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Persecution and Expansion: Repatriado Histories

Persecution and Expansion: Repatriado Histories

(p.83) Chapter 3 Persecution and Expansion: Repatriado Histories
Migrating Faith

Daniel Ramírez

University of North Carolina Press

Pentecostalism began to acquire institutional form at a moment of great vulnerability and heightened xenophobia. The Great Repatriation of the 1930s leveraged almost a half-million Mexicans and Mexican Americans out of the United States. This chapter recovers the life histories of repatriated Pentecostals (Ignacio Mariscal, Isidro Pérez, and Francisco and José Avalos), whose memories of this wrenching experience are imbedded in generally positive accounts of long ministerial careers. This remarkable resilience and creativity in the face of calamity brought about an unexpected outcome, namely Pentecostalism's expansion into new regions in western (Nayarit, Jalisco, Sinaloa, Sonora) and northern (Chihuahua) Mexico, the strengthening of transnational ties, and later missionary expansion throughout the hemisphere and into Europe. Rather than acquiescing as subdued scapegoats, many repatriates recovered prerogatives of citizenship, inserting themselves into and assuming leadership in agrarian ejidos (the Revolution's chief program) and vigorously contesting the custody of temples (federal property). Taken individually and in concert, Pentecostal subaltern responsive tactics carried strategic implications and yielded important results over time.

Keywords:   Great Repatriation, xenophobia, anti-clericalism, Mariscal, Pérez, Avalos, agrarian reform, ejido, Nayarit, Sinaloa

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