Court and Legal Records
Chavis v. North Carolina, 423 U.S. 1080 (1976).
Chavis v. State of North Carolina 637 F.2d 213 (4th Cir. 1980).
State v. Chavis, 24 N.C. App. 148 (1974).
State v. Chavis, 287 N.C. 261 (1975).
State of North Carolina vs. Tommy Atwood, James Bunting, Benjamin F. Chavis, Carnell E. Flowers, Jerry Jacobs (Alias Scarface), James McKoy, Marvin Patrick, Ann Shepherd, Connie Tindall, Willie E. Vereen, and Michael Peterson, Original Transcript of Probable Cause Hearing, 30 March 1972, http://www.justice.gov/crt/foia/readingroom/wilmington/, accessed 18 June 2012.
State of North Carolina vs. Benjamin Franklin Chavis, Marvin Patrick, Connie Tyndall [sic], Jerry Jacobs, Willie Earl Vereen, James McKoy, Reginald Epps, Wayne Moore, Joe Wright, George Kirby, and Ann Shepard, Transcript of Testimony [of first trial], http://www.justice.gov/crt/foia/readingroom/wilmington/, accessed 18 June 2012.
State of North Carolina vs. Benjamin Franklin Chavis, Marvin Patrick, Connie Tyndall [sic], Jerry Jacobs, Willie Earl Vereen, James McKoy, Reginald Epps, Wayne Moore, Joe Wright, George Kirby, and Ann Shepard, Transcript of Testimony [of second trial], http://www.justice.gov/crt/foia/readingroom/wilmington/, accessed 18 June 2012.
State of North Carolina vs. Allen Hall, 71-CR-7269, microfilm reel no. 72-18-266, Office of the Clerk of Superior Court of New Hanover County, Wilmington, N.C.
State of North Carolina vs. Allen Hall, 71-CR-7270, microfilm reel no. 72-18-265, Office of the Clerk of Superior Court of New Hanover County, Wilmington, N.C.
State of North Carolina vs. Allen R. Hall, 71-CR-8195, microfilm reel no. 72-18-264, Office of the Clerk of Superior Court of New Hanover County, Wilmington, N.C.
State of North Carolina vs. Donald Jerome Nixon, 71-CR-17668, microfilm reel no. 73-16-151, Office of the Clerk of Superior Court of New Hanover County, Wilmington, N.C.
State of North Carolina vs. Donald Jerome Nixon, 71-CR-17685, microfilm reel no. 73-16-151, Office of the Clerk of Superior Court of New Hanover County, Wilmington, N.C.
Ballance, Frank, 20 December 2008, Butner, N.C.
Chapman, Frank E., Jr., 16 and 18 November 2010, by telephone.
Coleman, Milton, 16 November 2007, by telephone.
Ferguson, James, 27 June 2007, Charlotte, N.C.
Grant, Jim, 15 December 2004, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Grossman, Victor, 22 May 2013, by e-mail.
Guinier, Lani, 12 December 2007, by telephone.
Hankins, Lethia, 11 November 2004, Wilmington, N.C.
Hulslander, Mac, 7 June 2007, Raleigh, N.C.
Hunoval, Mathias [in Belize], 25 April 2014, by telephone.
Jennings, Harvard, 16 August 2006, by telephone.
Johnson, Aaron, 22 September 2004, Fayetteville, N.C.
Johnson, Dale, 15 August 2012, by telephone.
Jones, Charles, 16 June 2005, Atlanta, Ga.
Joyner, Irv, 1 December 2006, Durham, N.C.
Kazana, Imani, 19 May 2008, Hyattsville, Md.
Kirby, George, 5 October 2004, Wrightsville Beach, N.C.
Landsberg, Brian, 3 June 2008, by telephone.
Luethke, Karsten [in Berlin], 26 June 2013, by telephone.
Michaux, H. M. “Mickey,”, 6 June 2013, Raleigh, N.C.
Moore, Delores, 19 July 2004, Wilmington, N.C.
Moore, Wayne, 9 April 2005, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Othow, Helen, 5 June 2007, by telephone.
Parker, Gwen [Whitakers, N.C., town administrator], 18 June 2014, by telephone.
Pinsky, Mark, 24 May 2012, by telephone.
Ramos, Maria, 17 September 2010, by telephone.
Rollin, Russell, 14 May 2007, Hillsborough, N.C.
Templeton, Donna, 24 August 2004, by telephone.
Templeton, Eugene, 27 August 2004, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Tindall, Connie, 31 October 2004, Kenansville, N.C.
Todd, Bertha, 11 November 2004, Wilmington, N.C.
Weatherman, Tony, 2 November 2004, by telephone.
White, Leon, 30 July 2004 and 11 June 2007, Manson, N.C.
Wonce, Benjamin, 14 August 2011, Wilmington, N.C.
Wright, Thomas, 21 September 2004, Raleigh, N.C.
Interviews Conducted by Larry Thomas, Deposited in the Duke University Oral History Program Collection, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University
Anonymous black male [appended to Walter Bordeaux transcript], n.d. .
“Barnabus” and Darryl Franks (aka “Daniel Banks”), 14 May 1978.
Grant, Jim, 10 July 1978
Templeton, Eugene, 1 August 1978.
Interviews Deposited at the Lower Cape Fear Historical Society, Wilmington, N.C.
Laney, Emsley, 14 June 1995.
Todd, Bertha, 13 June 1995.
Swain, Ernest, 20 June 1995.
Interviews Deposited in the Oral History Collection, William M. Randall Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Bellamy, Heyward, 19 April 2005.
Burnett, Gilbert H., 4 October 2002.
Moore, Wayne, and Benjamin Wonce, 17 April 2009.
Interviews Deposited in the Southern Oral History Program Collection, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Ferguson, James E., interview by Rudolph Acree Jr., 3 March 1992 and 17 March 1992, interview #J-0004.
Martin, Judge Robert McKinney, Jr., interview by Tom McLean, 28 October 1996 and 14 November 1996, interview #J-0043.
Mendez, John, interview by Rob Stephens, 6 February 2008, interview #U-0304.
Michaux, H. M. “Mickey,” Jr., interview by Joseph Mosnier, 23 June 1995, interview #A-0392.
Muhammad, Benjamin Chavis, interview by Kieran Taylor, 3 February 2006, interview #U-0332.
Nantambu, Kojo, interview by Larry Thomas, 15 May 1978, interview #B-59.
Templeton, Donna, interview by Larry Thomas, 28 July 1978, interview #B-61.
Whitfield, Edward, interview by Bridgette Burge, 26 February 2006, interview #U-0590.
Interviews Conducted by Others
Chavis, Ben, interview by Blackside, Inc., for Eyes on the Prize II: America at the Racial Crossroads 1965 to 1985, 18 April 1989, Henry Hampton Collection, Film and Media Archive, Washington University Libraries, St. Louis, Mo.
Yopp, Albert, Jr., interview by Timothy Tyson, 15 August 1992, Duke University Oral History Program Collection, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
Black Panther Party—North Carolina, FBI Headquarters File 105-165706-8, Section 10, http://vault.fbi.gov/Black%20Panther%20Party%20/Black%20Panther%20Party%20Part%2024%20°f%2034/view.
Black Panther Party—North Carolina, FBI Headquarters File 105-165706-8, Section 11, http://nara-wayback-001.us.archive.org/peth04/20041019151532/http://foia.fbi.gov/bpanther/bpanther12.pdf.
Heyward C. Bellamy Papers, William M. Randall Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.
Commission for Racial Justice Collection #2002.21, unprocessed manuscript, United Church of Christ Archives, Cleveland, Ohio.
National Alliance against Racist and Political Repression Papers, unprocessed manuscript, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, New York.
National Wilmington 10 Defense Committee Papers, unprocessed manuscript, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
Dan Pollitt Wilmington Ten Collection, unprocessed manuscript, in author’s possession.
Stanley Pottinger Papers, Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Public Liaison Files, Jimmy Carter Library, Atlanta, Ga.
T. J. Reddy Papers, J. Murrey Atkins Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
Southern Conference Church History Collection, unprocessed manuscript, Belk Library Archives and Special Collections, Elon University, Elon, N.C.
Special Assistant to the President Files, Jimmy Carter Library, Atlanta, Ga.
Signe Waller Wilmington Ten Collection, unprocessed manuscript, privately held.
Wilmington Movement 1971 clipping file, MS108, William M. Randall Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Wilmington.
Harrison L. Winter Papers, Milton Eisenhower Library, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
National Archives, College Park, Md.
BYBBC FBI Charlotte Field Office 157-8263.
Benjamin Chavis FBI Headquarters 157-HQ-12210.
Civil Rights Division: Subject Files of Drew Days III, 1977–80. General Records of the Department of Justice, RG60.
Classification 157 Field Office Case Files (Charlotte, N.C.), 1957–1978, 157-177-Sub L-3, RG65 Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Committee of Racial Justice [sic] FBI Charlotte Field Office 157-8527.
North Carolina Committee to Free Political Prisoners FBI Charlotte Field Office 157-CE-8777.
ROWP FBI Charlotte Field Office 157-7236.
SOBU/YOBU FBI Charlotte Field Office 157-CE-6758.
Wilmington Ten FBI HQ 157-8056.
Newspapers and Collections of Newspaper Articles
Current Digest of the Soviet Press.
Daily Tar Heel
Greenville (N.C.) Daily Reflector
Hendersonville (N.C.) Times-News
Lewiston (Maine) Daily Sun
Lexington (N.C.) Dispatch
Lodi (California) News-Sentinel
Los Angeles Times
New York Times
Raleigh News and Observer
Wilmington Morning Star
Wilmington Sunday Star-News
The Wilmington 10 Editorials and Cartoons. [New York?]: United Church of Christ, Commission for Racial Justice, 1977.
Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Ike Andrews Papers.
John Kenyon Chapman Papers.
Franklin T. Dupree Papers.
Timothy B. Tyson Papers.
State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh
Department of Administration Papers, Human Relations Council, County File.
———, Human Relations Council, Reports File.
Judge George M. Fountain’s Wilmington Ten Case File, 1971–1978.
Governor James B. Hunt Jr. Papers.
———, Office of General Counsel, Legal Counsel—Files of Jack Cozort (1977–1984).
Office of Attorney General Papers, Education and Corrections Section: Wilmington Ten Case File, unprocessed manuscript.
Governor Robert Scott Papers.
Amaker, Norman C. “The Faithfulness of the Carter Administration in Enforcing Civil Rights.” In The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter, edited by Herbert D. Rosenbaum and Alexej Urginsky, 737–60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Applebome, Peter. Dixie Rising: How the South Is Shaping American Values, Politics and Culture. New York: Times Books, 1996.
Austin, Curtis J. Up against the Wall: Violence in the Making and Unmaking of the Black Panther Party. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2006.
Barkan, Steven E. “Political Trials and the ‘Pro Se’ Defendant in the Adversary System.” Social Problems 24 (1977): 324–36.
Bermanzohn, Sally Avery. Through Survivors’ Eyes: From the Sixties to the Greensboro Massacre. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2003.
Bloom, Joshua, and Waldo E. Martin Jr. Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.
CBS News. “The Wilmington Ten.” 60 Minutes, 6 March 1977.
———. “The Wilmington Ten.” 60 Minutes,19 March 1978.
Cecelski, David. Along Freedom Road: Hyde County, North Carolina, and the Fate of Black Schools in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.
Cecelski, David S., and Timothy B. Tyson, eds. Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Chafe, William H. Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita, and Clarence Lang. “The ‘Long Movement’ as Vampire: Temporal and Spatial Fallacies in Recent Black Freedom Studies.” Journal of African American History 92 (2007): 265–88.
Chapman, Frank E., Jr. “A Black Prisoner Speaks Out.” Equity and Excellence in Education 12 (1974): 17–18.
———. “Pages from the Life of a Black Prisoner, No. 4, 1971.” In Freedomways Reader, edited by Esther Cooper Jackson, 259–61. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2000.
Cmiel, Kenneth. “The Emergence of Human Rights Politics in the United States.” Journal of American History 86 (1999): 1231–50.
Cobb, Charles E. “‘Behavior Modification’ in the Prison System.” Black Scholar 5 (May 1974): 41–44.
Cobb, Charles E., Jr. This Nonviolent Stuff’ll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible. New York: Basic Books, 2014.
Countryman, Matthew J. Up South: Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Dawson, Michael C. Blacks in and out of the Left. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2013.
———. Black Visions: The Roots of Contemporary African-American Political Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Dillard, Angela D. “Religion and Radicalism: The Reverend Albert B. Cleage, Jr., and the Rise of Black Christian Nationalism in Detroit.” In Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles outside the South, 1940–1980, edited by Komozi Woodard and Jeanne F. Theoharis, 153–75. Gordonsville, Va.: Palgrave, 2003.
Du Bois, W. E. B. “Does the Negro Need Separate Schools?” Journal of Negro Education 4 (1935): 328–35.
Elbaum, Max. Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicals Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che. London: Verso, 2002.
Fascell, Dante B. “Did Human Rights Survive Belgrade?” Foreign Policy 31 (1978): 104–18.
Fergus, Devin. Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009.
Finger, Bill. “Minorities Get the Squeeze.” North Carolina Insight, Summer 1980, http://www.nccppr.org/drupal/content/insightarticle/944/minorities-get-the-squeeze, accessed 5 June 2013.
Frazier, Robeson Taj P. “The Congress of African People: Baraka, Brother Mao, and the Year of ’74.” Souls 8 (2006): 142–59.
French, Laurence. “The Incarcerated Black Female: The Case of Social Double Jeopardy.” Journal of Black Studies 8 (1978): 321–35.
Galliard, Frye. The Long Dream Deferred: The Landmark Struggle for Desegregation in Charlotte, North Carolina. 3rd ed. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Godwin, John L. Black Wilmington and the North Carolina Way: Portrait of a Community in the Era of Civil Rights Protest. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000.
Graham, Gael. “Flaunting the Freak Flag: Karr v. Schmitt and the Great Hair Debate in American High Schools, 1965–1975.” Journal of American History 91 (2004): 522–43.
———. Young Activists: American High School Students in the Age of Protest. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006.
Grimsley, Wayne. James B. Hunt, a North Carolina Progressive. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.
Hill, Lance. The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Horne, Gerald. Black and Red: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944–1963. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
Hossfeld, Leslie H. Narrative, Political Unconscious and Racial Violence in Wilmington, North Carolina. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Janken, Kenneth Robert. Rayford W. Logan and the Dilemma of the African-American Intellectual. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.
———. Walter White: Mr. NAACP. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
Johnson, Cedric. Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African American Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
Jones, Patrick D. The Selma of the North: Civil Rights Insurgency in Milwaukee. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jordan, Milton C. “Black Legislators: From Political Novelty to Political Force.” North Carolina Insight, December 1989, http://www.nccppr.org/drupal/content/insightarticle/599/black-legislators-from-political-novelty-to-political-force, accessed 5 June 2013.
Joseph, Peniel. Stokely: A Life. New York: Basic Books, 2014.
Kelley, Robin D. G., and Betsy Esch. “Black Like Mao: Red China and Black Revolution.” Souls 1 (1999): 6–41.
Korstad, Robert R., and James L. Leloudis. To Right These Wrongs. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
Lahav, Pnina. “Theater in the Courtroom: The Chicago Conspiracy Trial.” Law and Literature 16 (Fall 2004): 381–474.
Lang, Clarence. Grassroots at the Gateway: Class Politics and Black Freedom Struggle in St. Louis, 1936–75. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.
Lewis, David Levering Lewis. King: A Biography. 2nd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978.
Marable, Manning. Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction and Beyond in Black America, 1945–2006. 3rd ed. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2007.
McGeehan, Charles. “Getting to the Hospital: An Overview of the Winston-Salem Black Panther Party.” Honors thesis, University of North Carolina, 2009.
McGuire, Danielle L. At the Dark End of the Street. New York: Vintage, 2010.
McNeil, Genna Rae. “‘Joanne Is You and Joanne Is Me’: A Consideration of African American Women and the ‘Free Joan Little’ Movement, 1974–1975.” In Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights–Black Power Movement, edited by Bettye Collier-Thomas and V. P. Franklin, 259–79. New York: NYU Press, 2001.
Meier, August, and Elliott Rudwick. “The Origins of Nonviolent Direct Action in Afro-American Protest: A Note on Historical Discontinuities.” In Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience, 314–22. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2002.
Moore, Wayne. Triumphant Warrior: A Soul Survivor of the Wilmington Ten. Ann Arbor: Warrior Press, 2014.
Myerson, Michael. Nothing Could Be Finer. New York: International Publishers, 1978.
Nash, June. “The Cost of Violence.” Journal of Black Studies 4 (1973): 153–83.
O’Reilly, Kenneth. “Racial Matters”: The FBI’s Secret File on Black America, 1960–1972. New York: Free Press, 1989.
Poinsett, Alex. Walking with Presidents: Louis Martin and the Rise of Black Political Power. Lanham, Md.: Madison Books, 1997.
Reed, Adolph, Jr. Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post-Segregation Era. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Sanders, Randy. “‘The Sad Duty of Politics’: Jimmy Carter and the Issue of Race in His 1970 Gubernatorial Campaign.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 76 (1992): 612–38. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Schutz, J. Christopher. “‘Going to Hell to Get the Devil’: The ‘Charlotte Three’ Case and the Decline of Grassroots Activism in Charlotte, North Carolina.” Ph.D. diss., University of Georgia, 1999.
Sellers, Cleveland, with Robert Terrell. The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC. New York: Morrow, 1973. Reprint, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990.
Smith, Robert C. We Have No Leaders: African Americans in the Post–Civil Rights Era. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.
Thomas, Larry Reni. Rabbit! Rabbit! Rabbit! A Fictional Account of the Wilmington Ten Incident of 1971. Charlotte, N.C.: KHA Books, 2006.
Tyson, Timothy B. Blood Done Sign My Name. New York: Crown, 2004.
———. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Umfleet, LaRae. 1898 Wilmington Race Riot Report. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources Office of Archives and History, 2006.
Umoja, Akinyele Omowale. We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2013.
Von Eschen, Penny M. Race against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.
Waller, Signe. Love and Revolution: A Political Memoir. Lanham, Md.: Rowman-Littlefield, 2002.
Williams, Rhonda Y. “‘Something’s Wrong Down Here’: Poor Black Women and Urban Struggles for Democracy.” In African American Urban History since World War II, edited by Kenneth L. Kusmer and Joe W. Trotter, 316–36. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. (p.232)