Daniel Carter Beard Papers. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. (DCBP)
Boy Scouts of America National Archive. Irving, Texas. (BSANA)
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, New York. (LSRMC)
Chicago Daily Tribune
Los Angeles Times
New York Times
Weekly News Bulletin of Boy Scout Activities
Published Primary Source Materials, Books, and Pamphlets
Adams, Willard. My Thirty Years in Scouting. Rigby, Idaho: Privately printed for Willard Adams, ca. 1952.
Alexander, John L. Boy Scouts pamphlet. Orange, Mass.: Minute Tapioca Co. for the BSA, 1911.
Arthurs, Frank B. “Boy Scouts Building for Manhood.” Outing Magazine 57 (December 1910): 276–84.
Baden-Powell, Robert. Aids to Scouting for N.-C.O.s and Men. London: Gale & Polden, 1899.
———. Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. 6 parts. London: Horace Cox, 1908.
———. Sea Scouting for Boys. Glasgow: James Brown & Son, 1911.
Beard, Daniel Carter. The Boy Pioneers: Sons of Daniel Boone. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911.
———. Hardly a Man Is Now Alive: The Autobiography of Dan Beard. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1939.
Boy Scouts of America. Annual Reports (1910–1930).
———. The Boy Scout Handbook. Irving, Tex.: BSA, 1998.
———. Boy Scout Song Book. Boston: C. C. Birchard, 1920.
———. Community Boy Leadership: A Manual for Scout Executives. New York: BSA, 1926.
———. First National Training School. New York: BSA, 1925.
———. The Good Turn Test. New York: BSA, 1928.
———. Handbook for Boys, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, May 1919, May 1927.
———. Handbook for Scout Masters. New York: BSA, 1914.
———. Handbook for Scout Masters. New York: BSA, 1919.
———. Handbook for Scoutmasters: A Manual of Leadership. New York: BSA, 1922.
———. Merit Badge pamphlets, selected.
———. National Training Executives Conference Report (ECR) (1920, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1936, 1939).
———. Official Handbook of the Lone Scouts of America. New York: BSA, undated.
———. Programs for Scout Masters of Boy Scouts of America: Proof Copy. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1912.
———. Scouting and the Jewish Boy. New York: BSA, 1928.
———. The Sea Scout Manual. New York: BSA, 1929.
———.Service Library pamphlets, selected.
———. Songs Scouts Sing. New York: BSA, 1930.
———. Standard Capitalization and Terminology of the Boy Scouts of America: Suggestions for Correspondence, Preparing Manuscripts and Proof Readers’ Marks. New York: BSA, 1920s.
———. The Troop Committee: An Active Committee Insures Progress. New York: BSA, 1928.
———. Troop Stunts. New York: BSA, 1931.
———. “‘Western Round-Up’ of Scout Executives.” January 21–24, 1920. Transcript. Berkeley, Calif.
Bureau of Municipal Research. Report on the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Bureau of Municipal Research, 1914.
Carey, Arthur A. The Scout Law in Practice. Boston: Little, Brown, 1915.
Casperson, Ralph A. A Northern Boyhood. Niles and Decatur, Mich.: Johnson Graphics for Ralph A. Casperson Books, 1993.
Cheley, F. H. The Practice of the Oath and Law. New York: BSA, 1928.
Chesley, Albert M., ed. Social Activities for Men and Boys. New York: Young Men’s Christian Association Press, 1910.
Curtis, Henry S. “The Boy Scouts.” Educational Review 50 (December 1915): 495–508.
Denslow, Cornelius. Making Nature Collections. New York: BSA Service Library, 1929.
Edwards, Arvid. Slices from My Life. Platte City, Mo.: Printed for A. H. Edwards, 1995.
Eliot, Charles W. The Training of Boy Scouts. New York: BSA, 1914.
Fairchild, Henry P. Conduct Habits of Boy Scouts. New York: BSA, 1931.
Fetridge, William Harrison. With Warm Regards: A Reminiscence. Chicago: Dartnell, 1976.
Fisher, George J. “Health and Endurance.” In Murray, Pratt, and Jameson, Official Handbook for Boys, 219–33.
Forbush, William. The Boy Problem. Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1907.
Geiss, Newton. Reminiscences of a Berks County Rural Boy. Kutztown, Pa.: Kutztown Publishing, 1970.
———. Youth—the Hope of the World. Kutztown, Pa.: Kutztown Publishing, 1972.
Gladden, George. “Some Practical Aspects of Scouting.” Century, February 1920, 573–75.
Hagood, J. Hurley. 52 Years of Adventure: Boy Scouting. Quincy, Ill.: JK Creative Printers, 1996.
Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education. 1904; reprint, New York: D. Appleton, 1922.
Henderson, James T. A Thousand Campfires: A Scouter’s Story. San Angelo, Tex.: Ambush Publishing, 1991.
Hillcourt, William. Handbook for Patrol Leaders. New York: BSA, 1929.
Hornaday, William T. Our Vanishing Wildlife: Its Extermination and Preservation. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1913.
Hurt, H. William, ed. Community Boy Leadership: A Manual for Scout Executives, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, 1922.
———, ed. Handbook for Boys, 3rd ed. New York: BSA, 1928.
———, ed. Handbook for Scoutmasters: A Manual of Leadership, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, 1929.
Jones, Helen. “The Boy Scouts of America.” Playground, January 1926, 562–63.
Jones, Mark M. “Report on a Survey of the Boy Scouts of America, 1927.” BSANA.
Kenney, Dave. Honor Bright: A Century of Scouting in Northern Star Council. St. Paul and Minneapolis: Northern Star Council BSA, 2009.
Kietzman, August F. Why I Became a Scoutmaster: Forty-Eight Years of Youth Work. New York: Comet Press Books, 1958.
Lamb, Merritt. My Scout and Other Poems. Muskegon, Mich.: W. C. Foote Printing, 1916.
Moffat, S. A. “Volunteer Citizens: The Young Peace Army of America as Developed through the Boy Scouts.” Craftsman, June 1914, 317–19.
Murray, William D., George D. Pratt, and A. A. Jameson, eds. The Official Handbook for Boys. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1911.
Reimer, Edward. Matching Mountains with the Boy Scout Uniform. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1929.
Richardson, Norman, and Ormond Loomis. The Boy Scout Movement Applied by the Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915.
Ripley, Sherman. Games for Boys. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1920.
Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Birch-Bark Roll of the Outdoor Life. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1908.
———. The Birch-Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1906.
Seton, Ernest Thompson, and Robert Baden-Powell. A Handbook of Woodcraft, Scouting, and Lifecraft. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1910.
Shaver, Waldo. Notes from a Pioneer’s Journal of Scouting Stories. Denver: Privately published, 1977.
Sherman, Waldo H. “The Boy Scouts 300,000 Strong.” World’s Work, September 1911, 14859–72.
Stowe, Lyman Beecher. “The Boy Scouts of the World.” Columbian, September 1911, 1102–4.
Taylor, A. J. “Man with Man in Scouting: Work with Colored Boys.” Southern Workman 64, no. 4 (April 1935): 109–10.
Taylor, John. From Market Square to the Banks of Sherman’s Creek … 85 Years of Scouting in the Keystone Area Council and 75 Years of Camping at Hidden Valley Scout Reservation. Privately published, 2002.
Tillery, Floyd. “Little Babbitts.” Forum 84, no. 6 (December 1930): 338–42.
Von Allman, E. P. “A Study of the San Francisco District Council of the Boy Scouts of America.” San Francisco: Council of Social and Health Agencies, October 1924.
Walsh, Stuart. Thirteen Years of Scout Adventure. Seattle: Lowman & Hanford, 1923.
Watkins, Prince L. Yakni: History of the Boy Scout Movement in Northeast Mississippi. Tupelo, Miss.: Yokona Area Council BSA, 1978.
West, James. Bulletin to All Scout Officials. New York: BSA, 1923–1929.
———. The Lone Scout of the Sky: The Story of Charles A. Lindbergh. Chicago and Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1928.
Wilder, James. Pine Tree Patrol. New York: BSA, 1918.
Wyland, Ray O. “The Knighthood of Youth.” Improvement Era, August 1928, 857.
———. Principles of Scoutmastership. New York: BSA, 1930.
———. Scouting in the Schools: A Study of the Relationships between the Schools and the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Columbia University, 1934.
Yater, Paul A. A History of Troop 1 (201) Longview, Texas, 1917–2002. Privately published, 2002.
Alexander, Kristine. “Similarity and Difference at Girl Guide Camps in England, Canada, and India.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 106–20.
Anderson, H. Allen. Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1986.
Armitage, Kevin. “Bird Day for Kids: Progressive Conservation in Theory and Practice.” Environmental History 12 (July 2007): 528–51.
———. The Nature Study Movement: The Forgotten Popularizer of America’s Conservation Ethic. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.
Ashby, LeRoy. “‘Straight from Youthful Hearts’: Lone Scout and the Discovery of the Child, 1915–1924.” Journal of Popular Culture 9, no. 4 (1976): 775–93.
Banner, Lois. Review of books on men and masculinity. Signs 14, no. 3 (Spring 1989): 703–8.
Barker-Benfield, Ben. “The Spermatic Economy: A Nineteenth Century View of Sexuality.” Feminist Studies 1.1 (Summer 1972): 45–74.
Bar-Yosef, Eitan. “Fighting Pioneer Youth: Zionist Scouting in Israel and Baden-Powell’s Legacy.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 42–55.
Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Biegert, Melissa. “Woman Scout: The Empowerment of Juliette Gordon Low, 1860–1927.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1998.
Blassingame, Wyatt. Story of the Boy Scouts. Champaign, Ill.: Garrard, 1968.
Block, Nelson R., and Tammy M. Proctor, eds. Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement’s First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne, U. K.: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.
Bogan, Samuel. “No Larger Fields: The History of a Boy Scout Council, 1910–1963.” Hamden, Conn.: Quinnipiac Council BSA, 1966.
Bolland, Thomas. “Magazine Coverage of the Boy Scouts and Scouting Events and Activities from 1910 to 1991.” Master’s thesis, Ohio University, 1993.
Bowers, Greg. “On My Honor”: 70 Years of Scouting in York & Adams Counties. York, Pa.: York Council BSA, 1983.
Boy Scouts International Bureau. Facts on World Scouting, 2nd ed. Ottawa, Ontario: Boy Scouts International Bureau, 1961.
Bragg, Ross. “The Boy Scout Movement in Canada: Defining Constructs of Masculinity for the Twentieth Century.” Master’s thesis, Dalhousie University, 1995.
Braude, Anne. “Making Men by Making Indians: ‘Red Men,’ Boy Scouts and the YMCA.” Edited by Susan Ware. New Viewpoints in Women’s History: Working Papers from the Schlesinger Library 50th Anniversary Conference, March 4–5, 1994. Cambridge, Mass.: The Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library, 1994.
Brittain, William J. The Spirit of Scouting ’76: Sixty-five Years of Challenge and Triumph in the St. Louis Area Council, Boy Scouts of America. St. Louis: St. Louis Area Council BSA, 1976.
Camp Fire Girls and Boys. Wo-He-Lo: The Camp Fire History. Kansas City: Camp Fire Girls and Boys, 1995.
Carnes, Mark C., and Clyde Griffen, eds. Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Cavallo, Dominick. Muscles and Morals: Organized Playgrounds and Urban Reform, 1880–1920. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.
Cawelti, John G. Apostles of the Self-Made Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Choate, Anne Hyde, and Helen Ferris, eds. Juliette Low and the Girl Scouts: The Story of an American Woman, 1860–1927. 1928; reprint, New York: Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., 1949.
Conley, Walter F. “William Dickson Boyce: Pioneer Publisher, Individualist and Good Scout.” The Elbeetian Book of Memories. Vol. 2. Hudson Heights, N.J.: Elbeetian Legion, 1963.
Creighton, Wilbur F., Jr., and Leland R. Johnson. Boys Will Be Men: Middle Tennessee Scouting since 1910. Nashville: Middle Tennessee Council BSA, 1983.
Cronin, Brendan Daniel. “Ninety-Two Years of Service: The Boy Scouts of America.” Undergraduate thesis, University of Dallas History Department, 2002.
Crotty, Martin. Making the Australian Male: Middle-Class Masculinity, 1870–1920. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2001.
———. “Scouts Down Under: Scouting, Militarism and ‘Manliness’ in Australia, 1908–1920.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 74–88.
Davis, Winston R. Men of Schiff: A History of the Professional Scouters Who Built the Boy Scouts of America. Privately published, 2013.
Deady, Rev. Carroll F. “An Historical Study of the Scout Movement in the United States and England.” Master’s thesis, Catholic University of America, 1928.
Dean, John I. “Scouting in America: 1910–1990.” Ph.D. diss., University of South Carolina, 1992.
Deloria, Philip. Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
———. “Playing Indian: Otherness and Authenticity in the Assumption of American Indian Identity.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994.
Demos, John, and Virginia Demos. “Adolescence in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 31, no. 4 (November 1969): 632–38.
Dillon, Elizabeth Leeming. On My Honor: 75 Years of Scouting in Central Virginia. Richmond, Va.: Robert E. Lee Council BSA, 1991.
Ditz, Toby. “The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gender Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History.” Gender and History 16, no. 1 (April 2004): 2–19.
Doughty, Robin. Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
Duersch, Fred, Jr. Merit Badge Field Guide. Logan, Utah: Downs Printing, Fred Duersch, 2003.
Dunlap, Thomas. Saving America’s Wildlife: Ecology and the American Mind, 1850–1990. Prince ton: Prince ton University Press, 1988.
Elliot, Willis V. Men of Paul Bunyan Stature: A History of Region Ten. St. Paul, Minn.: BSA Region Ten, 1968.
Fass, Paula S. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Filene, Peter G. Him/Her/Self: Gender Identities in Modern America, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Galt-Brown, James. “Baden-Powell and His Boy Scouts: The Reasons for Their Creation, Growth and Success in Great Britain, 1906–1920.” Ph.D. diss., Mississippi State University, 2002.
Gilbert, James. “Controlling Boys.” Reviews in American History 12, no. 4 (December 1984): 529–32.
Gillis, John R. “Conformity and Rebellion: Contrasting Styles of English and German Youth, 1900–33.” History of Education Quarterly, Fall 1973, 254–55.
Gorman, Edward J. “A Comparative Study of the Scout and the Non-Scout.” Master’s thesis, Catholic University, 1929.
Gorn, Elliott. The Manly Arts: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.
Grant, Julia. The Boy Problem: Educating Boys in Urban America, 1870–1970. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.
Green, Amy Susan. “Savage Childhood: The Scientific Construction of Girlhood and Boyhood in the Progressive Era.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1995.
Greene, Theodore. America’s Heroes: The Changing Models of Success in American Magazines. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Griffen, Clyde. “Reconstructing Masculinity from the Evangelical Revival to the Waning of Progressivism: A Speculative Synthesis.” In Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America, edited by Mark C. Carnes and Clyde Griffen, 183–204. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Grinder, Robert. “The Concept of Adolescence in the Genetic Psychology of G. Stanley Hall.” Child Development 40, no. 2 (June 1969): 355–69.
Griswold, Robert. Fatherhood in America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
———. Review of Manhood in America: A Cultural History, by Michael Kimmel. Journal of Social History 30, no. 4 (Summer 1997): 999–1001.
Groth, Susan. “Scouts’ Own: Creativity, Tradition and Empowerment in Girl Scout Ceremonies.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999.
Guterl, Matthew Pratt. The Color of Race in America, 1900–1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Haber, Samuel. Efficiency and Uplift:Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Hall, William E. 100 Years and Millions of Boys: The Dynamic Story of the Boys’ Clubs of America. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Cudahy, 1961.
Hantover, Jeffrey P. “The Boy Scouts and the Validation of Masculinity.” Journal of Social Issues 34, no. 1 (1978): 184–95.
———. “Sex Role, Sexuality, and Social Status: The Early Years of the Boy Scouts of America.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1976.
Harty, Kevin. “The Knights of the Square Table: The Boy Scouts and Thomas Edison Make an Arthurian Film.” Arthuriana 4, no. 4 (Winter 1994): 313–23.
Higham, John, ed. “The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890’s.” Writing American History: Essays on Modern Scholarship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.
Hilkey, Judy. Character Is Capital: Success Manuals and Manhood in Gilded Age America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
Hill, Janice. “Building a Nation of Nation-Builders: Youth Movements, Imperialism, and English Canadian Nationalism, 1900–1920.” Ph.D. thesis, York University, 2004.
Huffman, Minor S. Saga of Potato Canyon: A History of the Conquistador Council, Boy Scouts of America. Ros well, N.Mex.: Conquistador Council BSA, 1984.
———. Sam Houston Scouts: Seventy-Five Years of History in the Sam Houston Area Council. Houston: Sam Houston Area Council BSA, 1985.
Huhndorf, Shari. Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Jacoby, Karl. Crimes against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001.
Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell: Founder of the Boy Scouts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
Johnson, Charles T. “A Study of the Boy Scout Organization.” Master’s thesis, Colorado State Teachers College, 1930.
Johnson, Michael Bruce. “A Diamond in the Rough.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History, Fall 1995, 13.
Jordan, Ben. “‘Conservation of Boyhood’: Boy Scouting’s Modest Manliness and Natural Resource Conservation, 1910–1930.” Environmental History, October 2010, 612–42.
———. “Savages and the ‘SHE PERIOD’: The Boy Scouts of America’s Younger and Older Boy Problems.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 158–74.
Kahler, William. “An Historical Analysis of the Professional Career of Daniel Carter Beard, 1850–1941.” Ph.D. diss., Texas A & M University, 1975.
Kansas City Area Council BSA. Trail to Eagle: Six Decades of Scouting in Kansas City, 1910–1970. Kansas City: Kansas City Area Council BSA, 1972.
Keller, Betty. Black Wolf: The Life of Ernest Thompson Seton. Vancouver and Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984.
Kerr, Rose. The Story of the Girl Guides. Rev. ed. Rochester: Stanhope Press, 1936.
Kett, Joseph F. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Kimmel, Michael. Manhood in America: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1996.
———. “Men’s Responses to Feminism at the Turn of the Century.” Gender and Society 1, no. 3 (September 1987): 261–83.
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LDS-BSA Centennial Book Committee. Century of Honor: 100 Years of Scouting in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Salt Lake City: LDS-BSA Relationships Office, 2013.
Leslie, W. Bruce. “Coming of Age in Urban America: The Socialist Alternative, 1901–1920.” Educational Studies 85, no. 3 (Spring 1984): 468–71.
Levy, Harold P. Building a Popular Movement: A Case Study of the Public Relations of the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1944.
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———. Sons of the Empire: The Frontier and the Boy Scout Movement, 1890–1918. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.
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———. The Age of the Child: Children in America, 1890–1920. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998.
———. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.
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———. 25 Years of Scouting in Rhode Island. Providence, R.I.: privately printed, 1935.
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———. On My Honour: Guides and Scouts in Interwar Britain. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002.
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———. “(Uni)Forming Youth: Girl Guides and Boy Scouts in Britain, 1908–39.” History Workshop Journal 45 (Spring 1998): 103–34.
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