Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Modern Manhood and the Boy Scouts of America"Citizenship, Race, and the Environment, 1910-1930"$

Benjamin René Jordan

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781469627656

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469627656.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CSO for personal use (for details see http://www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 20 August 2018

(p.263) Selected Bibliography

(p.263) Selected Bibliography

Modern Manhood and the Boy Scouts of America
University of North Carolina Press

Primary Sources

Archival Sources

Daniel Carter Beard Papers. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. (DCBP)

Boy Scouts of America National Archive. Irving, Texas. (BSANA)

Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, New York. (LSRMC)


Chicago Daily Tribune

Los Angeles Times

New York Times

Washington Post


Boys’ Life

Lone Scout

Scout Executive


Weekly News Bulletin of Boy Scout Activities

Published Primary Source Materials, Books, and Pamphlets

Adams, Willard. My Thirty Years in Scouting. Rigby, Idaho: Privately printed for Willard Adams, ca. 1952.

Alexander, John L. Boy Scouts pamphlet. Orange, Mass.: Minute Tapioca Co. for the BSA, 1911.

Arthurs, Frank B. “Boy Scouts Building for Manhood.” Outing Magazine 57 (December 1910): 276–84.

Baden-Powell, Robert. Aids to Scouting for N.-C.O.s and Men. London: Gale & Polden, 1899.

———. Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. 6 parts. London: Horace Cox, 1908.

———. Sea Scouting for Boys. Glasgow: James Brown & Son, 1911.

Beard, Daniel Carter. The Boy Pioneers: Sons of Daniel Boone. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911.

(p.264) ———. The Buckskin Book of the Boy Pioneers of America. New York: Pictorial Review, 1911.

———. Hardly a Man Is Now Alive: The Autobiography of Dan Beard. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1939.

Boy Scouts of America. Annual Reports (1910–1930).

———. The Boy Scout Handbook. Irving, Tex.: BSA, 1998.

———. Boy Scout Song Book. Boston: C. C. Birchard, 1920.

———. Community Boy Leadership: A Manual for Scout Executives. New York: BSA, 1926.

———. First National Training School. New York: BSA, 1925.

———. The Good Turn Test. New York: BSA, 1928.

———. Handbook for Boys, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, May 1919, May 1927.

———. Handbook for Scout Masters. New York: BSA, 1914.

———. Handbook for Scout Masters. New York: BSA, 1919.

———. Handbook for Scoutmasters: A Manual of Leadership. New York: BSA, 1922.

———. Merit Badge pamphlets, selected.

———. National Training Executives Conference Report (ECR) (1920, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1936, 1939).

———. Official Handbook of the Lone Scouts of America. New York: BSA, undated.

———. Programs for Scout Masters of Boy Scouts of America: Proof Copy. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1912.

———. Scouting and the Jewish Boy. New York: BSA, 1928.

———. The Sea Scout Manual. New York: BSA, 1929.

———.Service Library pamphlets, selected.

———. Songs Scouts Sing. New York: BSA, 1930.

———. Standard Capitalization and Terminology of the Boy Scouts of America: Suggestions for Correspondence, Preparing Manuscripts and Proof Readers’ Marks. New York: BSA, 1920s.

———. The Troop Committee: An Active Committee Insures Progress. New York: BSA, 1928.

———. Troop Stunts. New York: BSA, 1931.

———. “‘Western Round-Up’ of Scout Executives.” January 21–24, 1920. Transcript. Berkeley, Calif.

Bureau of Municipal Research. Report on the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Bureau of Municipal Research, 1914.

Carey, Arthur A. The Scout Law in Practice. Boston: Little, Brown, 1915.

Casperson, Ralph A. A Northern Boyhood. Niles and Decatur, Mich.: Johnson Graphics for Ralph A. Casperson Books, 1993.

Cheley, F. H. The Practice of the Oath and Law. New York: BSA, 1928.

Chesley, Albert M., ed. Social Activities for Men and Boys. New York: Young Men’s Christian Association Press, 1910.

Curtis, Henry S. “The Boy Scouts.” Educational Review 50 (December 1915): 495–508.

Denslow, Cornelius. Making Nature Collections. New York: BSA Service Library, 1929.

(p.265) Eastman, Charles A. Indian Scout Craft and Lore. 1914; reprint, New York: Dover, 1974.

Edwards, Arvid. Slices from My Life. Platte City, Mo.: Printed for A. H. Edwards, 1995.

Eliot, Charles W. The Training of Boy Scouts. New York: BSA, 1914.

Fairchild, Henry P. Conduct Habits of Boy Scouts. New York: BSA, 1931.

Fetridge, William Harrison. With Warm Regards: A Reminiscence. Chicago: Dartnell, 1976.

Fisher, George J. “Health and Endurance.” In Murray, Pratt, and Jameson, Official Handbook for Boys, 219–33.

Forbush, William. The Boy Problem. Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1907.

Geiss, Newton. Reminiscences of a Berks County Rural Boy. Kutztown, Pa.: Kutztown Publishing, 1970.

———. Youth—the Hope of the World. Kutztown, Pa.: Kutztown Publishing, 1972.

Gladden, George. “Some Practical Aspects of Scouting.” Century, February 1920, 573–75.

Hagood, J. Hurley. 52 Years of Adventure: Boy Scouting. Quincy, Ill.: JK Creative Printers, 1996.

Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education. 1904; reprint, New York: D. Appleton, 1922.

Henderson, James T. A Thousand Campfires: A Scouter’s Story. San Angelo, Tex.: Ambush Publishing, 1991.

Hillcourt, William. Handbook for Patrol Leaders. New York: BSA, 1929.

Hornaday, William T. Our Vanishing Wildlife: Its Extermination and Preservation. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1913.

Hurt, H. William, ed. Community Boy Leadership: A Manual for Scout Executives, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, 1922.

———, ed. Handbook for Boys, 3rd ed. New York: BSA, 1928.

———, ed. Handbook for Scoutmasters: A Manual of Leadership, 2nd ed. New York: BSA, 1929.

Jones, Helen. “The Boy Scouts of America.” Playground, January 1926, 562–63.

Jones, Mark M. “Report on a Survey of the Boy Scouts of America, 1927.” BSANA.

Kenney, Dave. Honor Bright: A Century of Scouting in Northern Star Council. St. Paul and Minneapolis: Northern Star Council BSA, 2009.

Kietzman, August F. Why I Became a Scoutmaster: Forty-Eight Years of Youth Work. New York: Comet Press Books, 1958.

Lamb, Merritt. My Scout and Other Poems. Muskegon, Mich.: W. C. Foote Printing, 1916.

Moffat, S. A. “Volunteer Citizens: The Young Peace Army of America as Developed through the Boy Scouts.” Craftsman, June 1914, 317–19.

Murray, William D., George D. Pratt, and A. A. Jameson, eds. The Official Handbook for Boys. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1911.

(p.266) Price, Luther E. Thirty Years of Scout Camping: History of Glen Gray and other Scout Camps in Northern New Jersey. Montclair, N.J.: Montclair Arts and Crafts Press, 1941.

Reimer, Edward. Matching Mountains with the Boy Scout Uniform. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1929.

Richardson, Norman, and Ormond Loomis. The Boy Scout Movement Applied by the Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915.

Ripley, Sherman. Games for Boys. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1920.

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Birch-Bark Roll of the Outdoor Life. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1908.

———. The Birch-Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1906.

Seton, Ernest Thompson, and Robert Baden-Powell. A Handbook of Woodcraft, Scouting, and Lifecraft. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1910.

Shaver, Waldo. Notes from a Pioneer’s Journal of Scouting Stories. Denver: Privately published, 1977.

Sherman, Waldo H. “The Boy Scouts 300,000 Strong.” World’s Work, September 1911, 14859–72.

Stowe, Lyman Beecher. “The Boy Scouts of the World.” Columbian, September 1911, 1102–4.

Taylor, A. J. “Man with Man in Scouting: Work with Colored Boys.” Southern Workman 64, no. 4 (April 1935): 109–10.

Taylor, John. From Market Square to the Banks of Sherman’s Creek … 85 Years of Scouting in the Keystone Area Council and 75 Years of Camping at Hidden Valley Scout Reservation. Privately published, 2002.

Tillery, Floyd. “Little Babbitts.” Forum 84, no. 6 (December 1930): 338–42.

Von Allman, E. P. “A Study of the San Francisco District Council of the Boy Scouts of America.” San Francisco: Council of Social and Health Agencies, October 1924.

Walsh, Stuart. Thirteen Years of Scout Adventure. Seattle: Lowman & Hanford, 1923.

Watkins, Prince L. Yakni: History of the Boy Scout Movement in Northeast Mississippi. Tupelo, Miss.: Yokona Area Council BSA, 1978.

West, James. Bulletin to All Scout Officials. New York: BSA, 1923–1929.

———. The Lone Scout of the Sky: The Story of Charles A. Lindbergh. Chicago and Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1928.

Wilder, James. Pine Tree Patrol. New York: BSA, 1918.

Wyland, Ray O. “The Knighthood of Youth.” Improvement Era, August 1928, 857.

———. Principles of Scoutmastership. New York: BSA, 1930.

———. Scouting in the Schools: A Study of the Relationships between the Schools and the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Columbia University, 1934.

Yater, Paul A. A History of Troop 1 (201) Longview, Texas, 1917–2002. Privately published, 2002.

(p.267) Secondary Sources

Alexander, Kristine. “Similarity and Difference at Girl Guide Camps in England, Canada, and India.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 106–20.

Anderson, H. Allen. Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1986.

Armitage, Kevin. “Bird Day for Kids: Progressive Conservation in Theory and Practice.” Environmental History 12 (July 2007): 528–51.

———. The Nature Study Movement: The Forgotten Popularizer of America’s Conservation Ethic. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.

Ashby, LeRoy. “‘Straight from Youthful Hearts’: Lone Scout and the Discovery of the Child, 1915–1924.” Journal of Popular Culture 9, no. 4 (1976): 775–93.

Banner, Lois. Review of books on men and masculinity. Signs 14, no. 3 (Spring 1989): 703–8.

Barker-Benfield, Ben. “The Spermatic Economy: A Nineteenth Century View of Sexuality.” Feminist Studies 1.1 (Summer 1972): 45–74.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. “Fighting Pioneer Youth: Zionist Scouting in Israel and Baden-Powell’s Legacy.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 42–55.

Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Biegert, Melissa. “Woman Scout: The Empowerment of Juliette Gordon Low, 1860–1927.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1998.

Blassingame, Wyatt. Story of the Boy Scouts. Champaign, Ill.: Garrard, 1968.

Block, Nelson R., and Tammy M. Proctor, eds. Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement’s First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne, U. K.: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.

Bogan, Samuel. “No Larger Fields: The History of a Boy Scout Council, 1910–1963.” Hamden, Conn.: Quinnipiac Council BSA, 1966.

Bolland, Thomas. “Magazine Coverage of the Boy Scouts and Scouting Events and Activities from 1910 to 1991.” Master’s thesis, Ohio University, 1993.

Bowers, Greg. “On My Honor”: 70 Years of Scouting in York & Adams Counties. York, Pa.: York Council BSA, 1983.

Boy Scouts International Bureau. Facts on World Scouting, 2nd ed. Ottawa, Ontario: Boy Scouts International Bureau, 1961.

Bragg, Ross. “The Boy Scout Movement in Canada: Defining Constructs of Masculinity for the Twentieth Century.” Master’s thesis, Dalhousie University, 1995.

Braude, Anne. “Making Men by Making Indians: ‘Red Men,’ Boy Scouts and the YMCA.” Edited by Susan Ware. New Viewpoints in Women’s History: Working Papers from the Schlesinger Library 50th Anniversary Conference, March 4–5, 1994. Cambridge, Mass.: The Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library, 1994.

Brittain, William J. The Spirit of Scouting ’76: Sixty-five Years of Challenge and Triumph in the St. Louis Area Council, Boy Scouts of America. St. Louis: St. Louis Area Council BSA, 1976.

(p.268) Burns, Rex. Success in America: The Yeoman Dream and the Industrial Revolution. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976.

Camp Fire Girls and Boys. Wo-He-Lo: The Camp Fire History. Kansas City: Camp Fire Girls and Boys, 1995.

Carnes, Mark C., and Clyde Griffen, eds. Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Cavallo, Dominick. Muscles and Morals: Organized Playgrounds and Urban Reform, 1880–1920. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Cawelti, John G. Apostles of the Self-Made Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Choate, Anne Hyde, and Helen Ferris, eds. Juliette Low and the Girl Scouts: The Story of an American Woman, 1860–1927. 1928; reprint, New York: Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., 1949.

Conley, Walter F. “William Dickson Boyce: Pioneer Publisher, Individualist and Good Scout.” The Elbeetian Book of Memories. Vol. 2. Hudson Heights, N.J.: Elbeetian Legion, 1963.

Creighton, Wilbur F., Jr., and Leland R. Johnson. Boys Will Be Men: Middle Tennessee Scouting since 1910. Nashville: Middle Tennessee Council BSA, 1983.

Cronin, Brendan Daniel. “Ninety-Two Years of Service: The Boy Scouts of America.” Undergraduate thesis, University of Dallas History Department, 2002.

Crotty, Martin. Making the Australian Male: Middle-Class Masculinity, 1870–1920. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2001.

———. “Scouts Down Under: Scouting, Militarism and ‘Manliness’ in Australia, 1908–1920.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 74–88.

Davis, Winston R. Men of Schiff: A History of the Professional Scouters Who Built the Boy Scouts of America. Privately published, 2013.

Deady, Rev. Carroll F. “An Historical Study of the Scout Movement in the United States and England.” Master’s thesis, Catholic University of America, 1928.

Dean, John I. “Scouting in America: 1910–1990.” Ph.D. diss., University of South Carolina, 1992.

Deloria, Philip. Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

———. “Playing Indian: Otherness and Authenticity in the Assumption of American Indian Identity.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994.

Demos, John, and Virginia Demos. “Adolescence in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 31, no. 4 (November 1969): 632–38.

Dillon, Elizabeth Leeming. On My Honor: 75 Years of Scouting in Central Virginia. Richmond, Va.: Robert E. Lee Council BSA, 1991.

Ditz, Toby. “The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gender Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History.” Gender and History 16, no. 1 (April 2004): 2–19.

Doughty, Robin. Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

(p.269) Dubbert, Joe L. A Man’s Place: Masculinity in Transition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979.

Duersch, Fred, Jr. Merit Badge Field Guide. Logan, Utah: Downs Printing, Fred Duersch, 2003.

Dunlap, Thomas. Saving America’s Wildlife: Ecology and the American Mind, 1850–1990. Prince ton: Prince ton University Press, 1988.

Elliot, Willis V. Men of Paul Bunyan Stature: A History of Region Ten. St. Paul, Minn.: BSA Region Ten, 1968.

Fass, Paula S. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Filene, Peter G. Him/Her/Self: Gender Identities in Modern America, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Galt-Brown, James. “Baden-Powell and His Boy Scouts: The Reasons for Their Creation, Growth and Success in Great Britain, 1906–1920.” Ph.D. diss., Mississippi State University, 2002.

Gilbert, James. “Controlling Boys.” Reviews in American History 12, no. 4 (December 1984): 529–32.

Gillis, John R. “Conformity and Rebellion: Contrasting Styles of English and German Youth, 1900–33.” History of Education Quarterly, Fall 1973, 254–55.

Gorman, Edward J. “A Comparative Study of the Scout and the Non-Scout.” Master’s thesis, Catholic University, 1929.

Gorn, Elliott. The Manly Arts: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Grant, Julia. The Boy Problem: Educating Boys in Urban America, 1870–1970. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Green, Amy Susan. “Savage Childhood: The Scientific Construction of Girlhood and Boyhood in the Progressive Era.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1995.

Greene, Theodore. America’s Heroes: The Changing Models of Success in American Magazines. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Griffen, Clyde. “Reconstructing Masculinity from the Evangelical Revival to the Waning of Progressivism: A Speculative Synthesis.” In Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America, edited by Mark C. Carnes and Clyde Griffen, 183–204. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Grinder, Robert. “The Concept of Adolescence in the Genetic Psychology of G. Stanley Hall.” Child Development 40, no. 2 (June 1969): 355–69.

Griswold, Robert. Fatherhood in America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

———. Review of Manhood in America: A Cultural History, by Michael Kimmel. Journal of Social History 30, no. 4 (Summer 1997): 999–1001.

Groth, Susan. “Scouts’ Own: Creativity, Tradition and Empowerment in Girl Scout Ceremonies.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999.

Guterl, Matthew Pratt. The Color of Race in America, 1900–1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Haber, Samuel. Efficiency and Uplift:Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

(p.270) Hackensmith, C. W. “Scout Memorabilia: William D. Boyce and the Scouting Movement in America.” Pennsylvania Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, March 1972, 31–33.

Hall, William E. 100 Years and Millions of Boys: The Dynamic Story of the Boys’ Clubs of America. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Cudahy, 1961.

Hantover, Jeffrey P. “The Boy Scouts and the Validation of Masculinity.” Journal of Social Issues 34, no. 1 (1978): 184–95.

———. “Sex Role, Sexuality, and Social Status: The Early Years of the Boy Scouts of America.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1976.

Harty, Kevin. “The Knights of the Square Table: The Boy Scouts and Thomas Edison Make an Arthurian Film.” Arthuriana 4, no. 4 (Winter 1994): 313–23.

Higham, John, ed. “The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890’s.” Writing American History: Essays on Modern Scholarship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.

Hilkey, Judy. Character Is Capital: Success Manuals and Manhood in Gilded Age America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Hill, Janice. “Building a Nation of Nation-Builders: Youth Movements, Imperialism, and English Canadian Nationalism, 1900–1920.” Ph.D. thesis, York University, 2004.

Huffman, Minor S. Saga of Potato Canyon: A History of the Conquistador Council, Boy Scouts of America. Ros well, N.Mex.: Conquistador Council BSA, 1984.

———. Sam Houston Scouts: Seventy-Five Years of History in the Sam Houston Area Council. Houston: Sam Houston Area Council BSA, 1985.

Huhndorf, Shari. Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Jacoby, Karl. Crimes against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001.

Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell: Founder of the Boy Scouts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Johnson, Charles T. “A Study of the Boy Scout Organization.” Master’s thesis, Colorado State Teachers College, 1930.

Johnson, Michael Bruce. “A Diamond in the Rough.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History, Fall 1995, 13.

Jordan, Ben. “‘Conservation of Boyhood’: Boy Scouting’s Modest Manliness and Natural Resource Conservation, 1910–1930.” Environmental History, October 2010, 612–42.

———. “Savages and the ‘SHE PERIOD’: The Boy Scouts of America’s Younger and Older Boy Problems.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 158–74.

Kahler, William. “An Historical Analysis of the Professional Career of Daniel Carter Beard, 1850–1941.” Ph.D. diss., Texas A & M University, 1975.

Kansas City Area Council BSA. Trail to Eagle: Six Decades of Scouting in Kansas City, 1910–1970. Kansas City: Kansas City Area Council BSA, 1972.

(p.271) Kasson, John F. Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Keller, Betty. Black Wolf: The Life of Ernest Thompson Seton. Vancouver and Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984.

Kerr, Rose. The Story of the Girl Guides. Rev. ed. Rochester: Stanhope Press, 1936.

Kett, Joseph F. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1977.

Kimmel, Michael. Manhood in America: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1996.

———. “Men’s Responses to Feminism at the Turn of the Century.” Gender and Society 1, no. 3 (September 1987): 261–83.

Kolchin, Peter. “Whiteness Studies: The New History of Race in America.” Journal of American History 89 (June 2002): 154–73.

LDS-BSA Centennial Book Committee. Century of Honor: 100 Years of Scouting in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Salt Lake City: LDS-BSA Relationships Office, 2013.

Leslie, W. Bruce. “Coming of Age in Urban America: The Socialist Alternative, 1901–1920.” Educational Studies 85, no. 3 (Spring 1984): 468–71.

Levy, Harold P. Building a Popular Movement: A Case Study of the Public Relations of the Boy Scouts of America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1944.

Lewchuk, Wayne A. “Men and Monotony: Fraternalism as a Managerial Strategy at the Ford Motor Company.” Journal of Economic History 53, no. 4 (December 1993): 824–56.

Lewis, Paul W. Scouting in Iowa—the Values Endure: The Story of the Mid-Iowa Council. Iowa: Mid-Iowa Council BSA, 1999.

Lutts, Ralph. The Nature Fakers: Wildlife, Science and Sentiment. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 1990.

MacDonald, Robert. “Reproducing the Middle-Class Boy: From Purity to Patriotism in the Boys’ Magazines, 1892–1914.” Journal of Contemporary History 24, no. 3 (July 1989): 519–39.

———. Sons of the Empire: The Frontier and the Boy Scout Movement, 1890–1918. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Macleod, David. “Act Your Age: Boyhood, Adolescence, and the Rise of the Boy Scouts of America.” Journal of Social History 16, no. 2 (1982): 3–20.

———. The Age of the Child: Children in America, 1890–1920. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998.

———. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

———. “Original Intent: Establishing the Creed and Control of Boy Scouting in the United States.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 13–27.

Mangan, J. A., and James Walvin, eds. Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987.

McGovern, James R. “David Graham Phillips and the Virility Impulse of Progressives.” New England Quarterly 39, no. 3 (September 1966): 334–55. (p.272)

Mechling, Jay. “God and ‘What ever’ in the Boy Scouts of America.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 175–89.

Mighetto, Lisa. Wild Animals and American Environmental Ethics. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1991.

Miller, Susan. Growing Girls: The Natural Origins of Girls’ Organizations in America. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2007.

———. “Trademark: Scout.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 28–41.

Mills, Sarah. “‘An Instruction in Good Citizenship’: Scouting and the Historical Geographies of Citizenship Education.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38, no. 1 (January 2013): 120–34.

Mintz, Stephen. Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.

Mintz, Stephen, and Susan Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York: Free Press, 1988.

Morris, Brian. “Ernest Thompson Seton and the Origins of the Woodcraft Movement.” Journal of Contemporary History 5, no. 2 (1970): 183–94.

Murray, William D. The History of the Boy Scouts of America. New York: BSA, 1937.

Nagy, Lazlo. 250 Million Scouts. Chicago: Dartnell Press, 1985.

Narragansett Council BSA. Scout Trail, 1910–1962: History of the Boy Scout Movement in Rhode Island. Providence, R.I: Narragansett Council BSA, 1964.

———. 25 Years of Scouting in Rhode Island. Providence, R.I.: privately printed, 1935.

Nasaw, David. Children of the City: At Work and at Play. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Nash, Roderick. “The American Cult of the Primitive.” American Quarterly 18, no. 3 (Autumn 1966): 517–37.

Nicholl, David Shelley. The Golden Wheel: The Story of Rotary 1905 to the Present. Estover, Plymouth, UK: Macdonald and Evans, 1984.

Oursler, Will. The Boy Scout Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1955.

Paris, Leslie. Children’s Nature: The Rise of the American Summer Camp. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

Parsons, Timothy H. “The Limits of Sisterhood: The Evolution of the Girl Guide Movement in Colonial Kenya.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 143–56.

———. Race, Resistance, and the Boy Scout Movement in British Colonial Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Pendergast, Tom. Creating the Modern Man: American Magazines and Consumer Culture. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000.

Peterson, Robert. The Boy Scouts: An American Adventure. New York: American Heritage, 1984.

———. “Evolution of the Eagle Scout Award.” Scouting (November–December, 2002): 18–19, 44.

Petterchak, Janice A. Lone Scout: W. D. Boyce and American Boy Scouting. Rochester, Ill.: Legacy Press, 2003.

(p.273) Philadelphia Council BSA. Seventy Years of Scouting in the Boy Scouts of America Philadelphia Council, 1910–1980. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Council BSA, 1980.

Pienkos, Donald E. PNA: A Centennial History of the Polish National Alliance of the United States of North America. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1984.

Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H. Pleck, eds. The American Man. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980.

Pote, Harold F. Fifty Years of Scouting in America and the Pioneers. Privately printed, 1962.

Powers, Madelon. Faces along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman’s Saloon, 1870–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Price, Jennifer. Flight Maps: Adventures with Nature in Modern America. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Proctor, Tammy. “Gender, Generation, and the Politics of Guiding and Scouting in Interwar Britain.” Ph.D. diss., Rutgers University, 1995.

———. On My Honour: Guides and Scouts in Interwar Britain. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002.

———. Scouting for Girls: A Century of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2009.

———. “‘A Separate Path’: Scouting and Guiding in Interwar South Africa.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, no. 3 (July 2000): 605–31.

———. “(Uni)Forming Youth: Girl Guides and Boy Scouts in Britain, 1908–39.” History Workshop Journal 45 (Spring 1998): 103–34.

Pryke, Sam. “The Popularity of Nationalism in the Early British Boy Scout Movement.” Social History (Autumn 1998): 309–24.

Putney, Clifford. Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Reis, Mitchell. History of the Lone Scouts through Memorabilia. Windsor, Conn.: Mitchell Reis, 1996.

Reynolds, E. E. The Scout Movement. London: Oxford University Press, 1950.

Roberts, Gerald F. “The Strenuous Life: The Cult of Manliness in the Era of Theodore Roosevelt.” Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1970.

Rodgers, Daniel T. The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Rosenthal, Michael. The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scouts. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.

———. “Knights and Retainers: The Earliest Version of Baden-Powell’s Boy Scout Scheme.” Journal of Contemporary History 15, no. 4 (October 1980): 603–17.

Ross, Dorothy. G. Stanley Hall, Psychologist as Prophet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

Rothschild, Mary Aickin. “To Scout or To Guide? The Girl Scout–Boy Scout Controversy, 1912–1941.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 6, no. 3 (Autumn 1981): 115–21.

Rotundo, E. Anthony. American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

(p.274) Rowan, Edward L. To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America. Las Vegas: Las Vegas International Scouting Museum, 2005.

San Francisco Area Council BSA. Twenty Years of Progress. San Francisco: San Francisco Area Council BSA, 1937.

Scheidlinger, Saul. “A Comparative Study of the Boy Scout Movement in Different National and Social Groups.” American Sociological Review 13, no. 6 (December 1948): 742–44.

Schlossman, Steven. “G. Stanley Hall and the Boys’ Club: Conservative Applications of Recapitulation Theory.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 9, no. 2 (April 1973): 140–47.

Schudson, Michael. The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Scott, David C., and Brendan Murphy. The Scouting Party: Pioneering and Preservation, Progressivism and Preparedness in the Making of the Boy Scouts of America. Dallas: Red Honor Press, 2010.

Sleutelberg, Arnold M. “A Critical History of Organized Jewish Involvement in the Boy Scouts of America, 1926–1987.” Rabbinic thesis, Hebrew Union College–Jewish Institute of Religion, New York, 1988.

Spring, Joel. American School, 1642–1985: Varieties of Historical Interpretation of the Foundations and Development of American Education. New York: Longman, 1986.

Springhall, J. O. “Baden-Powell and the Scout Movement before 1920: Citizen Training or Soldiers of the Future?” English Historical Review 102, no. 405 (October 1987): 934–42.

———. “The Boy Scouts, Class and Militarism in Relation to British Youth Movements, 1908–1930.” International Review of Social History 16, no. 2 (August 1971): 125–58.

Stearns, Peter N. Be a Man! Males in Modern Society, 2nd ed. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1990.

Sterne, Wendy. “The Formation of the Scouting Movement and the Gendering of Citizenship.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1993.

Stocking, George W., Jr. “Lamarckianism in American Social Science: 1890–1915.” Journal of the History of Ideas 23, no. 2 (April–June, 1962): 239–56.

Sullivan, John F. Boyce of Ottawa: “Items on Grand Account,” 2nd ed. Marseilles, Ill.: North Central Graphics, 1985.

Summers, Anne. “Scouts, Guides and VADs: A Note in Reply to Allen Warren.” English Historical Review 102, no. 405 (October 1987): 943–47.

Summers, Martin. Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Syrett, Nicholas. The Company He Keeps: A History of White College Fraternities. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Tate, Willis. “A Study of Domination and Persuasion as Means of Social Control in a Boy Scout Organization in a Southwestern City of Two Hundred and Thirty Thousand Population.” Master’s thesis, Southern Methodist University, 1935.

(p.275) Testi, Arnaldo. “Theodore Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity.” Journal of American History, March 1995, 1509–33.

Thorson, P. V. History of the Great Southwest Council, 1910–1981. Albuquerque: printed by author, 1982.

Traister, Bryce. “Academic Viagra: The Rise of American Masculinity Studies.” American Quarterly 52, no. 2 (2000): 284–99.

Troen, Selwyn K. “The Discovery of the Adolescent by American Educational Reformers, 1900–1920: An Economic Perspective.” In Schooling and Society: Studies in the History of Education, edited by Lawrence Stone, 239–51. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

Turner, James Morton. “From Woodcraft to Leave No Trace.” Environmental History 7, no. 3 (July 2002): 462–84.

Tyack, David B. The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Vallory, Eduard. “Status Quo Keeper or Social Change Promoter: The Double Side of World Scouting’s Citizenship Education.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 207–22.

Van Slyck, Abigail. A Manufactured Wilderness: Summer Camps and the Shaping of American Youth, 1890–1960. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

Wade, Eileen K. The World Chief Guide: Olave Lady Baden-Powell, G.B.E. London: Hutchinson, 1957.

Wadland, John Henry. “Ernest Thompson Seton: Man in Nature and the Progressive Era, 1880–1915.” Ph.D. diss., York University, 1976.

Wagner, Carolyn D. “The Boy Scouts of America: A Model and a Mirror of American Society.” Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1979.

Warren, Allen. “Baden-Powell: A Final Comment.” English Historical Review 102, no. 405 (October 1987): 948–50.

———. “Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the Scout Movement and Citizen Training in Great Britain, 1900–1920.” English Historical Review 101, no. 399 (April 1986): 376–98.

Watenpaugh, Keith David. “Scouting in the Interwar Arab Middle East: Youth, Colonialism, and the Problems of Middle Class Modernity.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 89–105.

Watt, Carey. “‘No Showy Muscles’: The Boy Scouts and the Global Dimensions of Physical Culture and Bodily Health in Britain and Colonial India.” In Block and Proctor, Scouting Frontiers, 121–42.

Watts, Sarah. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Whitmore, Allan. “Beard, Boys and Buckskins: Daniel Carter Beard and the Preservation of the American Pioneer Tradition.” Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1970.

Wickberg, Daniel. “Heterosexual White Male: Some Recent Inversions in American Cultural History.” Journal of American History 92, no. 1 (June 2005): 136–57.

(p.276) Wigginton, Melinda. “The Boy Scouts of America: Founded in Progressivism and Still Progressing.” Master’s thesis, University of California Santa Barbara, 1984.

Wilkinson, Paul. “English Youth Movements, 1908–1930.” Journal of Contemporary History 4, no. 2 (April 1969): 3–23.

Wills, Chuck. Boy Scouts of America: A Centennial History. New York: DK Publishing, 2009.

Wilson, J. S. Scouting Round the World. London: Blandford Press, 1959.

Winter, Thomas. Making Men, Making Class: The YMCA and Workingmen, 1877–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Wyllie, Irvin G. The Self-Made Man in America: The Myth of Rags to Riches. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1954.

Zelizer, Viviana. Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children. Prince ton, N.J.: Prince ton University Press, 1994.