This chapter examines how blood as a racially charged metaphor has changed and been changed by various Osage understandings of relation over time. It traces the concept of blood, its roots in the colonial process, and the importance of Osage blood or lineal descent in terms of eligibility to vote and the constitutional requirements for citizenship. Looking specifically at these debates during the reform process, the chapter investigates the connection of blood to discourses of race and nation, and the use of blood within the 2006 Osage Nation Constitution.
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