This chapter examines the most important strains of black thought in the South in the century prior to the emergence of Garveyism and how these ideologies prepared the way for the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) to be readily accepted by blacks in the South. It considers Marcus Garvey's views on the black man's natural right to and attachment to Africa that echoed an earlier sentiment about Negro nationalism. It also discusses the influence of Edward Wilmot Blyden and Henry McNeal Turner on Garvey's ideology, especially Turner's insistence that emigration of black Americans to Africa was the solution to racial conflict. Finally, the chapter looks at how Garvey fashioned the UNIA into a civil religion to promote racial self-consciousness.
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