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Grassroots GarveyismThe Universal Negro Improvement Association in the Rural South, 1920-1927$
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Mary G. Rolinson

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780807830925

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807872789_rolinson

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(p.192) Epilogue
Grassroots Garveyism

Mary G. Rolinson

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter examines the Garvey movement's direct intellectual legacy with respect to the discourse of black nationalism and the integrationist tendencies of the modern civil rights movement. It considers the ties of activists at the local, state, regional, and national levels to the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) as well as the presence of the core tenets of Garveyism—black pride and self-determination—in black thought and popular culture. The formative influence of Garveyism has been acknowledged by some of the most influential African Americans of the twentieth century, particularly Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad and iconic black nationalist Malcolm X. Marcus Garvey reemerged as an icon courtesy of black popular culture, even as most historians have not acknowledged the pervasiveness of grassroots Garveyism in virtually every African American cultural, political, and intellectual movement since the 1930s.

Keywords:   nationalism, civil rights movement, Universal Negro Improvement Association, Garveyism, black pride, self-determination, African Americans, Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad, Marcus Garvey

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