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Dislocating Race & NationEpisodes in Nineteenth-Century American Literary Nationalism$
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Robert S. Levine

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780807832264

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807887882_levine

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Undoings Redux

(p.237) Epilogue
Dislocating Race & Nation

Robert S. Levine

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter focuses on the Spanish–American War of 1898 that led to the U.S. military occupation of Cuba and the Philippines in 1899, which brought the United States a glimpse of a new bi-oceanic empire far beyond the imaginings of Ulysses S. Grant or Frederick Douglass. Given that the occupation of the Philippines in particular was accomplished through deceit and against the wishes of the Filipino people, one imagines that had Douglass been alive, he would have been one of the most vociferous opponents of this new imperialistic aggression on the part of the United States. A number of historians and cultural critics have argued that 1898 was the “natural culmination” of a history of U.S. imperialism that can be traced back to the Louisiana Purchase and Monroe Doctrine of the early decades of the nineteenth century and then forward to the war with Mexico, diplomatic and filibustering efforts to gain Cuba during the 1850s, and various other ventures in Caribbean and Asian expansionism from the 1850s to the 1890s.

Keywords:   Spanish–American War, U.S. military occupation, bi-oceanic empire, Ulysses S. Grant, Frederick Douglass, imperialistic aggression

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