This chapter summarizes the book's main themes and presents some final thoughts. This book showed that pacifism between World War I and the Vietnam era was a multidimensional culture rooted in the particulars of its time and context. It laid out some particulars of that culture in all their overlapping complexity. The book argued that cross-denominational mainline Protestantism was the center of religious pacifism after World War I, and that this Protestant pacifist culture underwent a paradigm shift around the beginning of World War II, primarily between 1939 and 1942. The paradigm shift carried forward many elements of the existing culture, but realigned them and added newer cultural materials. New-paradigm pacifism moved from a mainstream position to a sectarian and marginal one; from an embrace of modernity to skepticism about it; and from a Christian center to a pacifist one.
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