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The Color of the LandRace, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832-1929$
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David A. Chang

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780807833650

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9780807895764_chang

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We Were Negroes Then: Political Programs, Landownership, and Black Racial Coalescence, 1904–1916

We Were Negroes Then: Political Programs, Landownership, and Black Racial Coalescence, 1904–1916

Chapter:
(p.149) 5 We Were Negroes Then: Political Programs, Landownership, and Black Racial Coalescence, 1904–1916
Source:
The Color of the Land
Author(s):

David A. Chang

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/9780807895764_chang.9

This chapter considers how, in a context of Jim Crow, disenfranchisement, and deepening economic inequality, African Americans and Creeks of African descent, who had long been suspicious of each other, redrew the lines of race and nation to defend their racial community. It observes that the elimination of citizenship distinction between black Creeks and black newcomers, the creation of a market In allotment lands, and the widespread landlessness of black Creeks and black newcomers all spurred African Americans from the South and black Creeks to cooperate to fight Jim Crow and to regain the vote in order to defend their political and economic interests, which they understood as conjoined. The chapter emphasizes that all of these developments must be understood in the context of the imposition of white supremacy, a political, economic, and ideological structure that made white men dominant in the state of Oklahoma.

Keywords:   Jim Crow, disenfranchisement, African Americans, Creeks, African descent, allotment lands, white men, Oklahoma

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