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Henry Wallace's 1948 Presidential Campaign and the Future of Postwar Liberalism$

Thomas W. Devine

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9781469602035

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: July 2014

DOI: 10.5149/9781469602042_Devine

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(p.399) Index

(p.399) Index

Source:
Henry Wallace's 1948 Presidential Campaign and the Future of Postwar Liberalism
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
Abt, John, 37–39, 48, 50–51, 162, 166, 184, 190, 193–94, 9n.227–29, 283, 285, 302 (n. 4), 339 (n. 73);
and drafting of Progressive Party platform, 136–37, 140, 143, 154
Ackerstein, Lynn, 84, 311 (n. 36)
Adamic, Louis, 125–26, 178
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 227
Akers, Milburn (Pete), 69–70, 158, 175
Alfange, Dean, 72, 76
Alsop, Joseph, 131, 157
Alsop, Stewart, 32, 131, 157
Altman, Jack, 93
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America (ACWA), 20–21, 36–37, 52, 62, 79, 142
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 231
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 61, 67, 90–91, 133, 200, 238
American Labor Party (ALP), 13, 19–21, 52, 62, 160, 205;
and Leo Isacson campaign, 71–81
Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), 8, 124, 191, 271–72, 275, 291;
first annual convention, 87–90, 146
American Student Union, 205
American Youth Congress (AYC), 205
American Youth for Democracy (AYD), 74, 205
Appleby, Paul, 44
Arnesen, Eric, xiii
Aron, Raymond, 114
Association of Catholic Trade Unionists, 215
Bachrach, Marion, 37
Baldanzi, George, 30
Baldwin, Calvin Benham (Beanie), 55–57, 60, 80, 83, 126, 146, 150, 153, 159, 167, 180–81, 184, 190, 194, 237, 249, 272–74, 283–85, 288;
background of, 36–37;
as concealed Communist, 40, 302 (n. 11);
recruits Henry Wallace to run as third party candidate, 37–40, 47–54, 57–70
Bazelon, David T., 256, 282–83
Bendiner, Robert, 242
Beneš, Edvard, 107, 116
Benson, Elmer, 69, 82, 179, 228
Bentley, Elizabeth, 146, 226, 229–30, 239–40, 243
Berkowitz, Emil, 191
Berlin Crisis, 95, 122, 126, 133, 169–71, 230, 279–80, 282–83
Berman, Jack, 272
Bevan, Aneurin, 103
Birkhead, Kenneth M., 124
Black, Hugo, 250
Bliven, Bruce, 45, 47
Bloom, Sol, 97
Blum, John Morton, 48
Blumberg, Albert, 19, 40, 302 (n. 11)
Bolton, Frances, 98–99
Bowles, Chester, 192, 273–74
Boyle, Hal, 181
Brandt, Raymond, 183
Brewster, Owen, 78
Bridges, Harry, 62, 84, 92–93, 213–14
Brophy, John, 92–93
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 28, 48, 61, 90, 133, 200, 211
(p.400) Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 61–62
Browder, Earl, xiii, 3–7, 13, 126, 239
Browderism, 6, 7, 13, 14, 125, 186, 213, 218, 292
Brown, Earl, 184
Brown, Edgar G., 150
Brown, John Cotton, 137, 139–42, 175
Browning, Alfred, 44
Brownstein, Ronald, 12
Bryan, William Jennings, 47, 171
Bryson, Hugh, 21, 23, 32, 84, 161–62, 220
Buchanan, Frank, 273
Buchanan, Scott, 134–35, 137, 152, 162–64
Bulletin of the Information Bureau of the CCVKP (b): Issues of Foreign Policy, 4–5, 294 (n. 7)
Burnham, Louis, 260–61, 346 (n. 83)
Byrnes, James F., 151
Cadden, Joseph, 205
Cambridge spies, 35
Cameron, Angus, 192
Cannon, Charles, 258
Carey, James, 134, 137
Cassidy, Jack, 211
Chamberlin, William Henry, 154, 230
Chambers, Whittaker, 146, 226
Charney, George, 14, 17, 26, 76
Chatham, Thurmond, 238
Chiakulas, Charles, 209–10
Childs, Marquis, 167
Childs, Morris, 18–19, 298 (n. 42)
Churchill, Winston, 6, 218
Cochran, Bert, 219
Coe, John M., 148, 234
Colmer, William M., 99
Cominform (Information Bureau of the Communist Parties), 25–27, 35, 41, 110–11, 130, 139, 177, 299 (n. 59)
Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA): in California, 10–11, 23–25, 83–84, 187–90;
and CIO, 27–33, 63, 84, 93–94, 160–61, 211–26, 247–48, 273, 337 (nn. 44, 47);
influence at Progressive Party convention, 127–28, 154–55, 159–67, 170–71, 173–78, 184–85, 195–96, 326 (n. 80), 330 (n. 50);
and Leo Isacson campaign, 74, 79–81;
loss of influence after 1948, 287;
and 1948 coup in Czechoslovakia, 111–14, 317 (nn. 43, 46);
and origins of Progressive Party, xiii, 2–3, 14, 16–19, 26–27, 32–33, 40, 48–49;
and Palestine partition, 74–76;
Popular Front strategy of, xii–xiii, 6–8, 25, 141, 143, 186, 291–92, 332 (n. 15);
post-Duclos line of, xii, 6–20 passim, 25, 34, 37, 65, 126–27, 134, 137, 185–86, 216, 219, 297 (n. 32);
rejects Wallace's “progressive capitalism,” 151, 186, 258, 291;
response to Wallace's candidacy, 63–64;
in South, 237–38, 241, 247, 259, 266–67;
and Soviet Union, xiii, 1–2, 13, 18–19, 26, 217–18, 330 (n. 55)
Communist Political Association (CPA), 3–4, 6. See also Communist Party of the United States
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 8, 14, 21, 133–34, 137, 160–61, 275, 284;
August 1948 Executive Board meeting, 221–26;
1947 National Convention, 29–31, 62;
opposes Progressive Party, 28–33, 54, 62–63, 90–92, 200, 211–21;
CIO Industrial Union Councils (IUCs), 14, 21, 84, 91–94, 133, 214–17
CIO Political Action Committee (CIO-PAC), 10–11, 36, 38, 214, 239, 248
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 350 (n. 130)
Connelly, Philip, 11
Connor, Theophilus Eugene (“Bull”), 251–52
(p.401) Conrad, Earl, 263
Cooke, Alistair, 132, 159, 164
Coser, Lewis, 46, 204
Crum, Bartley, 51
Curran, Joseph, 54, 213
Czechoslovakia, 130
—1948 Communist coup in, 95, 107–11, 122, 139, 162, 282, 316 (n. 37);
Wallace's reaction to, 109–14, 116, 118
Davidson, Jo, 40
DeCaux, Len, 29
De Gaulle, Charles, 284
De Havilland, Olivia, 9
De Lacy, Hugh, 173, 176–77, 329 (n. 46)
Delton, Jennifer, xiii, 90
Dennis, Eugene, 7, 13–20, 27, 31–33, 40, 136, 146, 186, 218
Deutsch, Albert, 38, 51–52
Dewey, Thomas E., 72, 78, 128, 211, 225, 263, 271–72, 278, 290
Dimitrov, Georgi, 4–5
Divine, Robert, 121
Dixiecrats, 124, 150, 242, 249, 254, 265, 286
Dodd, Bella, 19
Dodd, William, 53
Doll, Tracy, 215
Dombrowski, James, 251
Donovan, Robert J., 109
Dorner, Hannah, 17, 170
Dos Passos, John, 266
Douglas, Helen Gahagan, 23, 48, 272–74
Douglas, Paul, 60, 69
Draper, Alan, 234, 247–48, 341 (n. 5)
Draper, William H., 170–71
Duclos, Jacques, 3–6, 11, 298 (n. 42)
Duclos Letter, 3–8, 16, 25, 186, 294 (n. 9)
Duggan, Laurence, 340 (n. 75)
Dulles, John Foster, 170–71
Duncan, Bob, 238
Dunne, Philip, 12, 188
Durham Committee on Negro Affairs, 238
Durr, Virginia, 264
Edding, Carl, 174
Edson, Peter, 100
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 82, 89, 164, 289
Eisler, Gerhart, 33
Ellis, Richard J., 207
Emspak, Julius, 212
Esposito, Chiarella, 106–7
European Recovery Program (ERP). See Marshall Plan
Evans, Bill, 266
Farrell, James T., 185
Fast, Howard, 181–82
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 24, 135, 156, 189, 226–27, 297 (n. 39)
Ferrer, José, 75
Field, Marshall, 60
Fish, Hamilton, 59
Fisher, Vardis, 85
Fitzgerald, Albert, 162, 164, 173, 175, 177–78, 210, 212
Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 273
Fleeson, Doris, 64, 131
Flynn, Edward J., 71–72, 74, 79–80, 82, 308 (n. 7)
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 231
Folliard, Edward, 255
Folsom, James, 253–54, 347 (n. 93)
Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (FTA), 222, 247–48
Foot, Michael, 111
Foreman, Clark H., 234, 241, 249, 253, 260
Forrestal, James, 41, 170–71
Foster, William Z., 4, 7–8, 12–14, 17, 24, 27, 33, 88, 112, 171, 186, 218–19, 287
Frank, Lew, Jr., 49, 56, 184, 281, 283–85
Fredrickson, George M., 266
French Communist Party (PCF), 3–5, 110–11, 294 (n. 6), 316 (n. 38)
Friendly, Alfred, 33
Frye, Schubert, 174
Fryer, Lee, 125, 191
Fuller, Helen, 48, 50–51, 175
(p.402) Gailmore, William, 166–67, 172
Garfield, Zalmon, 69
Gates, John, 19–20, 27, 33, 40, 174
Gates, Lillian, 81, 342 (n. 19)
Germer, Adolph, 214–15
Gilette, King, 85
Gimbel, Elinor, 195, 231
Gitt, Josiah, 176
Gleaves, J. H. R., 248
Gold, Benjamin, 32, 222–24
Goldman, Eric, 150
Gottwald, Klement, 107–8, 115, 139
Grafton, Samuel, 66
Green, William, 61, 91, 211
Gromov, Anatoly B. (Anatoly Gorski), 16–17, 297 (n. 35)
Hale, William Harlan, 44, 65
Hall, Max, 281
Hall, Sam, 253
Hamby, Alonzo, xiii
Hamlin, Lloyd, 189
Harrington, Donald, 100
Harris, James D., 244
Hartunian, Albert, 174
Haslam, Jonathan, 6
Hauser, Philip, 48
Havenner, Franck R., 272
Hawkins, Jason, 248
Hayford, James, 173, 176
Haynes, John Earl, 226
Healey, Dorothy, 10, 83
Helstein, Ralph, 213
Henderson, Donald, 222, 339 (n. 60)
Hester, Jack, 157
Hillman, Sidney, 36–37
Hiss, Alger, 226, 228
Hittelman, Ellenore, 10, 23, 295 (n. 21)
Hogan, Austin, 93
Holifield, Chet, 272
Hollander, Louis, 21
Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions (HICCASP), 9–10, 12, 23, 295 (n. 21)
Hoover, J. Edgar, 226
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), 170, 226–30, 239
Howard, Charles P., 158–59, 326 (n. 7)
Howe, Irving, 46, 204
Huberman, Leo, 134–35, 145
Hughes, H. Stuart, 193, 290
Humphrey, Hubert H., 60, 69, 216, 275
Huston, John, 188
Ickes, Harold, 108, 172
Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions (ICCASP), 8–9, 14–15, 18–19, 37, 170
Independent Progressive Party (IPP), 23–24, 32, 39, 83–84, 188–90, 272–73, 277
International Fur and Leather Workers Union, 32, 54, 223, 338 (n. 49)
International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), 62, 84, 92–93, 213–14
International Union of Students (IUS), 209
Isacson, Leo, 94, 118, 204, 309 (n. 22);
and 1948 special election campaign, 71–83, 180;
and Palestine partition, 75–76
Jackson, Donald L., 99
Jackson, Gardner, 131
Jaffe, Philip, 19, 354 (n. 2)
Javits, Jacob, 99
Jenkins, David, 84
Jonkman, Bartel J., 98
Kahn, Elinor, 187
Kasenkina, Oksana Stepanova, 229–31, 340 (n. 80)
Kellogg, Peter, 262
Kempton, Murray, 29, 207
Kenny, Robert W., 10–11, 22–25, 44, 49–50, 69, 83
Kent, Carlton, 185
Kent, Frank, 277
(p.403) Kingdon, Frank, 39–40, 50–52, 58, 70, 116, 302 (n. 10)
Kirchwey, Freda, 42, 63, 113, 121, 167
Klehr, Harvey, 226
Klein, Arthur G., 13
Knowland, William F., 11
Kolko, Gabriel, 106
Korstad, Karl, 248
Kramer, Charles, 227, 339 (n. 73)
Krzycki, Leo, 142
Ku Klux Klan, 249, 251
Labour Party (Great Britain), 96, 103
La Guardia, Fiorello H., 313 (n. 9)
Lahey, Edwin, 182, 255, 260
Lampell, Millard, 170
Lansing, Marjorie, 184, 192–93
Lapin, Adam, 25
Lash, Joseph P., 68–69
Laski, Harold, 114, 318 (n. 52)
Lawrence, William, 178
Lee, Canada, 75
Lee, Jennie, 103–4
Leffler, Melvyn P., 117
Lens, Sidney, 209–10
Lerner, Max, 48, 55–56, 59, 67, 115, 132, 146, 152
Leuchtenburg, William E., 191
Liberal Party (New York), 72, 78
Linfield, Seymour, 201–3, 333 (n. 3)
Lippmann, Walter, xiv, 58, 282, 285
Loeb, James I., 67, 89–90, 104, 146–48, 192
Lomankin, Yakov, 229–30
Lord, Russell, 45
Louis, Joe, 75
Lozovsky, Solomon, 19
Lubell, Samuel, 82, 289–90
Lyons, Eugene, 64
Macdonald, Dwight, 33, 45, 64, 90, 101–2, 104–5, 113, 197–98
Mac-Dougall, Curtis, xii, 1–3, 40, 43, 130, 176, 220, 288–89
MacNeil, Alan, 191
Marcantonio, Vito, 75, 78, 144–45, 160–61, 164, 166–67
Marine Cooks and Stewards Union (MCS), 21, 84, 161
Markowitz, Norman D., 42, 101, 143
Marshall, George C., 29–30, 95, 108, 120–21, 279
Marshall, Margaret, 67, 100, 286–87
Marshall Plan, ix, 5, 23, 25–26, 29, 56–57, 60, 62–63, 81, 88, 91–92, 95–107 passim, 109–10, 134, 147, 167–68, 209, 273, 284;
CPUSA opposition to, 29–33, 217, 225, 275, 291;
historians' assessment of, 106–7, 314 (n. 24), 315 (n. 26);
Wallace opposes in Congressional testimony, 96–99
Martin, James Stewart, 136, 148, 161–62, 164
Masaryk, Jan, 108, 113, 230, 315 (n. 31)
Matles, James, 31, 212, 271
Matthiessen, F. O., 192
McGovern, George, 335 (n. 22)
McGrath, J. Howard, 80
McHale, Frank, 61
McNaughton, Frank, 118
McWilliams, Carey, 11, 227
Mencken, H. L., 129, 165, 172–73
Milward, Alan S., 107
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, 212, 250
Miscamble, Wilson D., 294 (n. 10)
Molotov, Vyacheslav, 17, 119–20, 122, 229, 319 (n. 70). See also Smith-Molotov Exchange
Mondale, Walter, 116, 318 (n. 55)
Moon, Henry L., 265
Mooney, J. P., 250, 252, 254
Morris, George, 63
Moscow, Warren, 112
Mundt, Karl, 98
Mundt-Nixon Bill, 134
Murphy, George, 260
Murray, Harold, 245
(p.404) Murray, Philip, 14, 20, 28–33, 47, 54, 62–63, 91–93, 160, 210–11, 213–16, 218, 273;
speaks at August 1948 CIO Executive Board meeting, 221–26
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 165, 238, 263, 268, 342 (n. 25), 351 (n. 134)
National Association of Manufacturers, 211
National Citizens Political Action Committee (NCPAC), 8–9, 14–15, 18, 36
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 18, 297 (n. 39)
National Farmers Union, 125
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 247, 257
National Maritime Union (NMU), 54, 213
National Student Association (NSA), 208–9
Negro Democratic Club (Winston-Salem, N.C.), 248
Nelson, Bruce, 255, 268
Nelson, Steve, 218
New Party. See Progressive Party
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 175
Nixon, Russell, 210–11
NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs), 14, 53, 227, 239
Norrell, Robert, 234
North, Robert C., 189
Norton, Howard, 196
Noyes, Newbold, 261
O'Connor, Tom, 206
O'Dwyer, William, 75, 77
Olson, Orville, 275
O'Neill, William L., 152, 177, 290
Operation Dixie, 266, 268
Palestine partition, 73, 75–76
Paniushkin, Alexander, 19, 26
Pascal, Ernest, 9
Patterson, Ellis, 10–12, 14
Pearson, C. O., 264
Pechatnov, Vladimir O., 6
Peek, George N., 257
Pegler, Westbrook, 129
Pepper, Claude, 250
Perlo, Victor, 105
Perry, Jennings, 263
Petran, Tabitha, 105, 134, 152
Philbrick, Herbert, 192
Phillips, Cabell, 276
Plotke, David, 90, 186
Polk, George, 128
Popham, John, 244
Popper, Martin, 142, 144–46, 148–49, 154, 194, 323 (n. 48)
Popular Front Liberalism, 133, 139–41, 150–51, 154–55, 163, 176–77, 194–95, 198–99, 258, 291–92;
historians and, xii–xiii, 89–90, 150, 262–63, 325 (n. 70);
and 1948 coup in Czechoslovakia, 114–16;
Potash, Irving, 54
Potofsky, Jacob, 62
Potsdam Conference, 130
Pressman, Lee, 29, 62, 220–21, 227–28, 322 (n. 27), 339 (n. 71);
and drafting of Progressive Party platform, 133–49 passim, 151, 153–55, 173–75, 177–78, 194
Price, Mary, 236, 239–41, 243, 245
Progressive Citizens of America (PCA), 15, 89, 134;
and origins of Progressive Party, 36–40, 48–70 passim
Progressive Party: African American support for, 124, 156, 205–6, 220, 234, 236–38, 247–48, 259, 263–68;
appeal to labor, 210–21;
appeal to youth, 234;
Communist influence in, 125–28, 154–55, 157–67, 170–71, 173–78, 275–76, 281–82, 330 (n. 54);
debate over party rules, 159–64, 327 (n. 12);
(p.405) debate over Vermont amendment, 173–77, 330 (n. 50);
defeat of, 286–92;
defections from, 186–99 passim, 271, 276–78;
fall campaign, 270–71, 276–78, 283–85;
and HUAC hearings, 227–29, 239;
National Convention, 123, 126–27, 156–79;
in North Carolina, 235–49, 341 (n. 13);
platform of, 131–55 passim, 172–79;
withdrawal of congressional candidates, 272–76
Propper, Karl, 72, 74–81
Public opinion polls, 23, 39, 55–56, 121–22, 124–26, 168–69, 209, 212, 228, 262, 284, 286, 305 (nn. 42, 43), 320 (n. 2), 336 (n. 33)
Quill, Michael, 31–33, 62–63, 75, 211–12, 220, 224, 301 (n. 74), 306 (n. 57)
Rabin, Benjamin J., 72
Rainey, Joseph H., 165
Ramsey, David, 105, 134
Randolph, A. Philip, 61, 211
Rankin, John, 228, 270
Rauh, Joseph, 124
Rayburn, Sam, 118
Redding, Jack, 80
Reece, B. Carroll, 59
Reed Farm, 229–30
Reston, James, 120
Reuther, Walter P., 30, 32, 62, 87–88, 214, 221, 300 (n. 72)
Richards, James P., 98
Robeson, Paul, 69, 75, 153, 166–67, 288
Rogers, Will, Jr., 10–11
Rohrer, Charles, 142
Romero, Frederico, 107
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 48, 68–69, 75, 77, 80, 104, 205, 346 (n. 80)
Roosevelt, Franklin D., x–xi, 8, 15–17, 22, 30, 44, 46, 63, 68, 84–85, 93–94, 168, 184, 186, 198, 212, 222, 226, 265, 283, 307 (n. 60)
Roosevelt, James, 9, 12
Ross, Irwin, 131, 175, 285
Rothstein, Ida, 84
Ruark, Robert, 230, 250
Rubin, Morris, 207
Russia. See Soviet Union
Ryan, James, 133
Sage, Samuel, 215
Savage, Charles, 56–57
Savage, Gus, 206
Scales, Junius, 237
Schapsmeier, Edward and Frederick, 175, 313 (n. 15)
Schmidt, Karl M., 96, 206
Schuman, Frederick L., 151–54, 157, 175, 180, 192
Scott, Lawrence, 210
Seeger, Pete, 165, 242
Segure, Rose, 190
Shachtman, Max, 185
Shannon, David A., 46, 126, 151
Sheean, Vincent, 207
Sherbell, Kenneth, 54
Shikes, Ralph, 127, 166
Sinclair, Upton, 187
Sloane, Allan E., 170–71
Smith, Alfred E., 289
Smith, Edwin S., 17, 297 (n. 35)
Smith, Harold, 44
Smith, Jessica, 37
Smith, Lawrence H., 99
Smith, L. G., 245
Smith, Lillian, 254
Smith, Walter Bedell, 119–20, 122
Smith-Molotov Exchange, 118–22
Socialist Party, xi
Sorokin, Valentin, 53
Southern Conference for Human Welfare (SCHW), 236, 241, 251–52, 261, 346 (n. 80)
Southern Negro Youth Congress (SNYC), 251–52
Soviet Union: and Kasenkina affair, 229–31;
position on Progressive Party, 18–19, 33, 53, 122, 319 (n. 70);
(p.406) post–World War II foreign policy, 5–6, 8, 13, 26, 97, 138–39, 324 (n. 60)
Sparks, Nemmy, 9–10, 24–25, 84, 295 (n. 20)
Sperling, Milton, 9
Stachel, Jack, 20, 218
Stalin, Josef, ix–x, xiii, 5, 13, 17, 23, 26, 62, 67–68, 88, 96, 101, 151, 177, 282, 294 (n. 6);
exchange of letters with Wallace, 119–22
Starobin, Joseph, 14–15, 26, 64, 83, 113, 174, 182, 185–86, 287, 289
States Rights Democratic Party. See Dixiecrats
Stearns, Arthur F., 155
Steefel, Genevieve, 174, 194–95
Steel, Johannes, 14, 73
Stein, Leonard, 162
Steinhardt, Laurence, 112–13, 317 (n. 46)
Stephanson, Anders, 106
Stern, Alfred K., 52–53, 288
Stern, Martha Dodd, 53, 288
Stewart, Kenneth, 97
Stokes, Thomas L., 157
Stone, I. F., 66, 100, 271
Storch, Philip, 57
Stover, Fred, 164
Straight, Michael, 35–37, 39, 45, 47, 70, 288
Students for a Democratic Society (SDA), 204–5
Sullivan, Gael, 67
Sweezy, Paul, 134–35, 137
Taft, Robert A., 25, 43, 56, 59, 78
Taft-Hartley Act, 28, 56, 134, 222, 225, 247
Taylor, Dora, 85
Taylor, Glen H., 159, 197, 203, 229, 289;
campaign stop in Alabama, 251–52;
foreign policy views of, 84–87, 153, 167;
joins Progressive Party ticket, 84–85, 87, 148;
at Progressive Party convention, 123, 128, 131, 164, 167–68, 183
Taylor, Paul, 189
Tenney, B. Jack, 187–88
Tenney Committee (California), 187–89
Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA), 30
Thomas, Cedric, 142, 148–49
Thomas, Norman, xi, 58, 105, 157, 167, 185, 198
Thompson, Dorothy, 130, 164, 181, 206
Thompson, Robert, 31–33, 81
Thurmond, J. Strom, 242, 265
Tindall, George B., 267
Tito, Josip Broz, 8, 126, 130, 177–78, 197–98, 320 (n. 9)
Tolstoy, Alexandria, 229
Toward World Peace, 70
Townsend, Francis E., 132
Townsend, Willard, 82
Transport Workers Union of America (TWU), 31, 33, 62, 211–12, 224
Traugott, Lillian, 41, 303 (n. 14)
Troy, Smith, 56
Truman, Harry S, ix–x, 16–18, 21–23, 28–30, 35, 39, 44, 56, 61–62, 67–68, 71, 74, 86, 92, 120–21, 123, 146, 151–52, 166, 168, 211–12, 215, 217–18, 223–25, 231–32, 238, 248–49, 270–71, 278, 289;
and civil rights, 124–25, 254, 262–66, 287–88;
CPUSA criticism of, 7–8;
and HUAC hearings, 226, 228;
and Palestine partition, 75–78, 309 (n. 11);
response to 1948 coup in Czechoslovakia, 108–9;
on Wallace's candidacy, 60–61, 80, 116;
and “war scare” of March 1948, 116–18
Truman Doctrine, xiii–xiv, 5, 23, 57, 81, 110, 138, 274–75
Trumbo, Dalton, 9, 277
Tugwell, Rexford G., 66, 198–99;
and drafting of Progressive Party platform, 131–48 passim, 152, 172, 178;
and Puerto Rican independence, 144–46;
withdraws from Progressive Party, 195–96, 232, 290, 333 (n. 37)
Turpin, Sally, 181
(p.407) United Auto Workers (UAW), 20, 30, 32, 62, 211, 214
United Electrical Workers (UE), 31, 162, 211, 218, 271, 273
United Nations, 68–69, 96, 101, 279–80;
and Palestine partition, 75–76
United Nations Relief and Recovery Administration (UNRRA), 97–98, 100–101, 119, 131, 313 (n. 9)
United Office and Professional Workers Association, 202
United Packinghouse Workers of America (UPWA), 213
United Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Employees, 93
United Steelworkers of America (USWA), 210–11, 220
Universal Military Training (UMT), 56, 109, 131, 209
Valentine, Anthony, 238
Vandenberg, Arthur, 105
Vassiliev, Alexander, 53
Venona (National Security Agency project), xiii, 14, 226–27, 239
Vronsky, B., 18–19
Walker, Christine, 202–4
Walker, J. Samuel, 120–21
Wallace, Henry A.: attacks Truman Administration, x, xiv, 5, 15–18, 41, 65–66, 116–18, 168, 221, 231–32, 274–75, 278–79;
CPUSA recruits, as third party candidate, 32–33, 35–40, 48–49, 54;
decides to run as third party candidate, 41, 49, 57–59;
and drafting of Progressive Party platform, 133–34, 145–46, 153;
as editor of the New Republic, 18, 35–36, 40, 44–45, 70;
European officials criticize, 102–4;
and “Guru letters,” ix, 129–30, 321 (n. 16);
and HUAC hearings, 227–29;
and Madison Square Garden address (1946), 17–18, 48, 102;
and organized labor, 54, 94, 212, 221, 270–71;
and Palestine partition, 75–78;
passive role in Progressive Party campaign, 183–84, 280–81;
at Progressive Party convention, 123, 128–31, 159, 164, 168–72, 180;
reacts to 1948 election results, 287;
relies heavily on advisors, 43–44, 114;
southern tour, ix–x, xiv, 233–35, 242–56, 259–60;
at YPA convention, 203–4
—views of: on Communists, 37, 45–47, 63, 126, 128–29, 194–95, 197, 231, 287–89, 343 (n. 36);
on economic policy, 151, 253, 256–58, 313 (n. 5);
on U.S.-Soviet relations, xiii–xiv, 58–59, 66–68, 95, 130–31, 168–70, 279–82, 284–85, 307 (n. 64), 313 (n. 15)
Wallace, Ilo, 53
Walsh, J. Raymond, 51–52
Wanamaker, Sam, 165, 168
Warren, Earl, 11
Warren, Frank A., 102
Washington, Harold, 206
Watt, Richard T., 135
Weber, Palmer, 236, 250, 252, 259–60
Wechsler, James A., 58, 113, 133, 163, 171, 175, 178, 183, 249, 261, 280–81, 290
Weinstein, Allen, 53
Weinstein, James, 218
Weir, Ernest T., 105
Welsh, William, 209
West, Rebecca, 128, 130
Wheeler, Burton K., 42
White, Harry Dexter, 228–29, 340 (n. 75)
White, Theodore, 45
Whitney, A. F., 28, 48, 61
Wholesale and Warehouse Workers Union, 54
(p.408) Williams, Aubrey, 48
Williams, Kenneth, 248
Williamson, John, 31–33
Wilson, Charles G., 277
Winant, John G., 113
Wishart, Robert, 215–16
Witt, Nathan, 227
Wornstaff, Leothar “Oakie,” 212
Wright, Fielding, 259
Yalta Conference, 5, 130, 230
Young, Coleman, 215
Young, Harold, 35, 37, 70
Young, P. D., 263
Young Communist League, 205
Young Progressives of America (YPA), 200–210, 220, 232
Yugoslavian Communist Party, 8, 130
Zhdanov, Andrei, 25–27, 35, 37, 43, 139, 290
Zieger, Robert H., xiii