This chapter shows how the economies of Europe's Caribbean colonies had been fueled by African slave labor. The slave revolt in the French colony of Saint Domingue in 1791 and the creation of the black republic of Haiti in 1804 forever altered the Caribbean colonial landscape. In 1807, Great Britain ended the slave trade across its empire, interrupting the regular flow of Africans to Caribbean plantations. Britain pressured other European powers to follow suit, and although Spain signed treaties to end its slave trade in 1817 and 1835, a clandestine slave trade continued until 1865. With a growing abolition movement and the end of slavery looming, European powers in Latin America and the Caribbean began to experiment with different kinds of labor. The British ship Fortitude transported two hundred Chinese from Macao, Penang, and Calcutta to Trinidad in 1806, well before the end of slavery.
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