This chapter shows how the treaty ending the Spanish-American War of 1898 guaranteed independence from Spain. However, the birth of the Cuban nation was ushered in by U.S. imperial interventions in the years 1899–1902 and 1906–9. The Platt Amendment ensured the right of the United States to intervene in Cuba's domestic affairs when deemed necessary and sanctioned its continued surveillance. After 1898, the United States applied its own anti-Chinese immigration policies to newly acquired or controlled territories, including Cuba. U.S. officials sought to prevent Cuba from serving as a springboard for what it considered to be racially undesirable immigrants, among them Asians, and especially Chinese. One contingent sought to halt the importation of braceros into Cuba, which would undercut sugar production in the U.S. South.
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