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The World the Civil War Made$
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Gregory Downs and Kate Masur

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781469624181

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624181.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use.date: 25 June 2021

Indian Territory and the Treaties of 1866

Indian Territory and the Treaties of 1866

A Long History of Emancipation

Chapter:
(p.226) 9 Indian Territory and the Treaties of 1866
Source:
The World the Civil War Made
Author(s):

Barbara Krauthamer

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624181.003.0010

This chapter traces the history of black people's emancipation from slavery in Indian Territory, with particular emphasis on the 1866 treaties that leaders of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw nations entered with the United States to abolish racial chattel slavery in each nation. From the late eighteenth century through the end of the Civil War, Native American slaveholders held thousands of people of African descent in bondage, exploiting their labor and reproduction for power, prestige, and wealth. During the 1830s era of Indian Removal, the federal government forced Indian nations to leave Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, and resettled people in the region known as Indian Territory, where the nations retained limited sovereignty over their people and land. This chapter shows that the federal government's actions to end slavery after the Civil War went hand in hand with efforts to expand national sovereignty over the lands of Native Americans.

Keywords:   black people, emancipation, slavery, Indian Territory, treaties, Indian Removal, federal government, Indian nations, sovereignty, Native Americans

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