This chapter analyzes developments in native cattle cultures at the height of the hide and tallow trade. Early management of the feral herds depended on European and American bullock hunters. Around 1832, Hawaiian elites hired vaqueros from California to employ and teach a ranch style of herd management to better control and harvest goods from cattle on the island. California vaqueros and the newly trained Hawaiian paniolo labored with cattle within the European-controlled trade networks of the eastern Pacific. Meanwhile, California Indians outside this system still exploited the predominance of cattle on California’s rangelands through banditry.
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