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Hammer and HoeAlabama Communists during the Great Depression$
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Robin D. G. Kelley

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9781469625485

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625485.001.0001

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Negroes Ain’ Black—But Red!: Black Communists and the Culture of Opposition

Negroes Ain’ Black—But Red!: Black Communists and the Culture of Opposition

(p.92) Five Negroes Ain’ Black—But Red!: Black Communists and the Culture of Opposition
Hammer and Hoe

Robin D. G. Kelley

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter discusses how the meshing of the African-American culture of opposition and a Stalinist version of Marxism-Leninism contributed to the growth and survival of the Communist Party in Alabama. It first explores how a Maxist pedagogy in Birmingham and rural Alabama altered black working people's self-definition and pre-existing worldview. It then turns to the traditions of resistance blacks brought to the Party, examining how these modes of opposition affected collective and individual action and dialectically fused with Left culture. Finally, the chapter deals with the complexities and ambiguities of black radical opposition by looking at conflict within the black community and Communists, clergy, and black middle class spokespersons.

Keywords:   Communist Party, Alabama, blacks, black radical opposition, Marxism, Leninism, African Americans

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