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Julius ChambersA Life in the Legal Struggle for Civil Rights$
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Richard A. Rosen and Joseph Mosnier

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781469628547

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469628547.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use.date: 21 September 2021

Opening Up the Workplace

Opening Up the Workplace

The Title VII Campaign

(p.193) Chapter Ten Opening Up the Workplace
Julius Chambers

Richard A. Rosen

Joseph Mosnier

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter describes the contributions of Julius Chambers and his partners, most particularly Robert Belton, to the LDF's national litigation campaign to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which new law outlawed racial discrimination in the workplace effective July 1965. In October 1965, Chambers filed the nation's first-ever Title VII suit, and soon after filed three additional cases which, when ultimately decided years later, substantially ended overt racial discrimination in American workplaces. These critical victories included Supreme Court triumphs in Griggs v. Duke Power (1971) and Albermarle Paper Co. v. Moody (1975), and the Fourth Circuit's Robinson v. Lorillard Corp. (1971). Griggs, recognized as the era's landmark employment ruling, established the "disparate impact" standard for adjudicating employers' use of "intelligence" tests and other pre-employment screening mechanisms. Together, Griggs, Moody, and Robinson did much to define the federal courts' interpretations of Title VII in a fashion that both opened workplaces to black job seekers and offered some compensatory remedy to those who had suffered under racially discriminatory workplace schemes. By these efforts, Chambers, his partners, and the LDF would leave the American workplace forever changed.

Keywords:   Julius Chambers, NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, civil rights litigation, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, employment discrimination, Robert Belton, Griggs v. Duke Power Co, disparate impact standard, Albermarle Paper Co. v. Moody, Robinson v. Lorillard Corp

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