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Rise of the Arab American LeftActivists, Allies, and Their Fight against Imperialism and Racism, 1960s-1980s$
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Pamela E. Pennock

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9781469630984

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2017

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630984.001.0001

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“Enemies Within”

“Enemies Within”

Operation Boulder and Infringements of Civil Liberties

(p.143) 5 “Enemies Within”
Rise of the Arab American Left

Pamela E. Pennock

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter examines the federal government’s violations of Arab Americans’ civil liberties with attention to the Nixon administration’s program Operation Boulder, instituted after the murders by Palestinian commandos of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. The program instituted rigorous checks on Arab immigrants’ visas, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Immigration and Naturalization Service Arab American activists and Arab students for connections to terrorism.

Keywords:   Civil liberties, Operation Boulder, Nixon, Munich massacre, FBI, INS, terrorism, Arab students, Abdeen Jabara, AAUG, infringement

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