The conclusion notes the ways that Malcolm X’s criticism of U.S. policy in the Congo, which he finds consistent with a larger disregard for the lives of Black people, globally conceived, is echoed in the words and actions of Black Lives Matter activists, who organized following the murder of Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Florida, and the failure to prosecute his killer. Sanford is a town founded by Henry Shelton Sanford, who represented the United States at the Berlin Conference and worked as a lobbyist for King Leopold II, which helped to fund his Florida empire. This chapter notes that Sanford was directly at odds with George Washington Williams during their lifetime and up until their deaths, which suggests that the Congo appears as an integral part of the landscape of U.S. racial violence and that African American critics of colonialism have always been willing to use their voices to say so.
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