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From Asylum to PrisonDeinstitutionalization and the Rise of Mass Incarceration after 1945$
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Anne E. Parsons

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781469640631

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469640631.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use.date: 04 August 2021

Unlocking the Doors

Unlocking the Doors

(p.44) Chapter Two Unlocking the Doors
From Asylum to Prison

Anne E. Parsons

University of North Carolina Press

This chapter traces how the number of people in mental health institutions began to decline in the 1950s. It examines Pennsylvania as a case study and finds that riots and scandals at mental hospitals there put pressure on policy makers to move away from the institutional model of treatment. Public officials and psychiatrists planned new outpatient facilities and psychiatric care in community hospitals. At the same time, the state government managed social deviance through criminal justice reform as it expanded the police and prisons, which were rife with racial discrimination. The reforms focused on rehabilitation as psychiatrists devised smaller, treatment-oriented programs to try to curb behaviors such as juvenile delinquency. This chapter charts how on the one hand the 1950s ushered in an era of anti-institutionalism and deinstitutionalization in mental health. But, on the other hand, the decade also brought about an expansion of the criminal justice system.

Keywords:   anti-institutionalism, criminal justice reform, deinstitutionalization, juvenile delinquency, mental health reform, mental hospitals, psychiatry, racial discrimination, rehabilitation

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