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Making Machu PicchuThe Politics of Tourism in Twentieth-Century Peru$
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Mark Rice

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781469643533

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469643533.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use.date: 27 February 2020

The Junta and the Jipis, 1960–1975

The Junta and the Jipis, 1960–1975

(p.98) Chapter Four The Junta and the Jipis, 1960–1975
Making Machu Picchu

Mark Rice

University of North Carolina Press

Advances in jet travel ushered in Cusco’s first tourism boom in the 1960s and 1970s. However, a series of agrarian revolts and the collapse of Cusco’s traditional economic base threatened to unravel tourism. Increasingly, Cusco looked to the national state to use tourism as a source of economic development, especially after the 1968 military coup led by the left-leaning General Juan Velasco Alvarado. Working with transnational institutions like UNESCO and employing Machu Picchu as a populist symbol, the military sought to use cultural tourism with ongoing agrarian reform to remake Cusco’s regional society. Contrary to the military’s goals, these efforts ultimately failed. Plans to construct a modernist hotel at Machu Picchu provoked fights between development and preservation interests. In addition, the unexpected arrival of counter-cultural travellers shocked locals. Finally, the highly-technical strategies employed by the military and UNESCO only served to displace local control over tourism in favor of bureaucratic interests in Lima.

Keywords:   Machu Picchu, Cusco, Peru, UNESCO, Juan Velasco Alvarado, Counter-Culture, Tourism, Agrarian reform

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