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The Lumbee IndiansAn American Struggle$
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Malinda Maynor Lowery

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781469646374

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646374.001.0001

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We Have Always Been a Free People

We Have Always Been a Free People

Encountering Europeans

(p.16) Chapter One We Have Always Been a Free People
The Lumbee Indians

Malinda Maynor Lowery

University of North Carolina Press

In the 1580s, Sir Walter Raleigh’s soldiers and settlers, including Arthur Barlowe and Ralph Lane, ventured into Roanoke. They forged alliances with Wingina, a leader of Roanoke and his allies Wanchese and Manteo, but Lane attacked Manteo’s village of Croatoan, killing Wingina. Wanchese retaliated against Lane’s group. Manteo left and returned in 1587 with Governor John White. After failed negotiations with the Croatoan, White decided to attack Wanchese but mistakenly attacked Croatoan villagers. White left for England, and when he returned to Virginia three years later, the colony was gone, the settlers having taken refuge with the Croatoan. Other settlers, such as the ones in Tuscarora territory, established their societies under Indians’ authority and agreed to live by Indians’ rules. The society that blossomed under Tuscarora supervision was multiracial and prospered from trade. The Tuscarora War was a violent explosion of tensions between the Tuscarora, Europeans, and their Indian allies. By the 1750s, the people of Drowning Creek and its swamps traced belonging through kinship, spoke English, farmed, and adopted European land-tenure systems. They regenerated their identity as an Indian community and developed a nation that operated independently and valued autonomy, freedom, and justice.

Keywords:   Sir Walter Raleigh, Arthur Barlowe, Ralph Lane, Wingina, Wanchese, Manteo, Roanoke, Croatoan, Tuscarora, Colonialism

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