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The Lumbee IndiansAn American Struggle$
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Malinda Maynor Lowery

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781469646374

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646374.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use.date: 23 September 2021

The Justice to Which We Are Entitled

The Justice to Which We Are Entitled

Segregation and Assimilation

Chapter:
(p.94) Chapter Four The Justice to Which We Are Entitled
Source:
The Lumbee Indians
Author(s):

Malinda Maynor Lowery

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646374.003.0005

As the lines between “white” and “colored” hardened in North Carolina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Indians participated in segregation and the institutionalization of race in an attempt to ensure two things: that whites would recognize their “Indianness” and that Indians would retain control of their own institutions. The creation of Indian schools became a main part of the fight for recognition. Indians recognized the game of race and addressed it by consistently trying to move it to an arena where they had power. Picking and choosing tribal names and pursuing federal and state recognition of those names became one way of dealing with this problem. Throughout the twentieth century, the name of the Robeson County Indians changed from “Croatan” to “Cherokee Indians of Robeson County” to “Siouan Indians of the Lumbee River”. The name changes frequently led to conflict within and outside the community. Supporters of Cherokee or Siouan names pursued different paths to recognition. Robeson County Indians had to navigate standards of authenticity set forth by the federal government, such as blood-quantum provisions. Even after some Indians were finally granted official recognition, they were often still denied their full benefits from the government.

Keywords:   Segregation, Assimilation, Indian chools, Jim Crow, White supremacy, Robeson County, Croatan, Cherokee, Siouan, Blood quantum

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