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The Lumbee IndiansAn American Struggle$
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Malinda Maynor Lowery

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781469646374

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646374.001.0001

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A Creative State, Not a Welfare State

A Creative State, Not a Welfare State

Creating a Constitution

(p.202) Chapter Seven A Creative State, Not a Welfare State
The Lumbee Indians

Malinda Maynor Lowery

University of North Carolina Press

Lumbee advocates believed that Lumbees should harness the full power of self-determination provided by the federal government. Federal recognition does not legitimize a tribe’s identity, but it does give a tribe’s inherent sovereignty a unique place within the American political system. This chapter outlines the Lumbee fight for federal recognition throughout the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Opposition came from the federal government, Washington political infighting, and other Indian tribes. Despite disappointment at the federal level, Lumbee organizations worked together to create a tribal government and constitution for the Lumbee people, as well as debated with each other about how best to do that. The topic of gaming was particularly controversial. Eventually Lumbees decided on an electoral system of government with representation on a district basis. The Lumbee constitution defined two important aspects of Lumbee identity: kinship and place.Important players in the Lumbee fight for sovereignty included Arlinda Locklear, Julian Pierce, Helen Maynor Schierbeck, and Dalton Brooks.

Keywords:   federal recognition, sovereignty, gaming, tribal government, Lumbee constitution, Arlinda Locklear, Julian Pierce, Helen Maynor Schierbeck, Dalton Brooks

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