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In a Pure Muslim LandShi'ism between Pakistan and the Middle East$
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Simon Wolfgang Fuchs

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781469649795

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469649795.001.0001

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All-Indian Shiʿism, Colonial Modernity, And The Challenge Of Pakistan

All-Indian Shiʿism, Colonial Modernity, And The Challenge Of Pakistan

Chapter:
(p.16) Chapter One All-Indian Shiʿism, Colonial Modernity, And The Challenge Of Pakistan
Source:
In a Pure Muslim Land
Author(s):

Simon Wolfgang Fuchs

Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:10.5149/northcarolina/9781469649795.003.0002

This chapter explores the late colonial milieu with its opposing discourses of communalism and nationalism that left a deep impact on Shi‘i community formation. In the first half of the 20th century, India’s Shi‘is portrayed themselves as being on a higher spiritual level in contrast to the common (Sunni) Muslims. Yet, once the Muslim League (ML) adopted the creation of Pakistan as its goal, influential Shi‘i voices expressed deep and increasing skepticism toward the founding of a state that claimed to form an inclusive homeland for all Muslims of the subcontinent. This chapter further demonstrates the substantial links that connected South Asian Shi‘is to major events in the Middle East. Finally, the chapter shows that Lucknow’s religious scholars were far from secure in their leadership position of the Shi‘i community. The modernist-minded All India Shi‘a Conference (AISC) viewed these mujtahids as hopelessly out of touch with the challenges of the time and regarded the AISC as a more appropriate vehicle of communal leadership.

Keywords:   Lucknow, All India Shi‘a Conference, Muslim League, mujtahids, Hejaz, communalism, Pakistan Movement, modernists, colonial modernity

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