Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Inventing DisasterThe Culture of Calamity from the Jamestown Colony to the Johnstown Flood$

Cynthia A. Kierner

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781469652511

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469652511.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of North Carolina Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in NCSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 25 October 2021

(p.247) Bibliography

(p.247) Bibliography

Inventing Disaster

Cynthia A. Kierner

University of North Carolina Press

Primary Sources


British National Archives, Kew, U.K.

Colonial Office Records, series 5, 42, 152

Treasury Board Papers and In-Letters, series 1

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Bradford Family Papers

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.

House of Representatives Collection

Library of Virginia, Richmond

John Durbarrow Blair Papers (microfilm)

Isaac Coplin Letters

Thomas B. Hewitt Letter

National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D. C.

House Committee on Commerce Papers

Portsmouth Athenaeum, Portsmouth, N.H.

Portsmouth Fire Collection

Royal Archives, Windsor Castle, Windsor, U.K.

Augusta, Princess of Wales, Accounts

Essays of George III

George III Official Correspondence

George III Private Correspondence

George III, Privy Purse

Royal Library, Windsor Castle, Windsor, U.K.

Picture Library

South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston

Edward W. Bancroft Letter

Robert Mills Papers

Virginia Historical Society, Richmond

Greene Family Papers

(p.248) Newspapers

Aberdeen Press and Journal (UK)

Albany Argus

Albany Evening Journal

Alexandria Advertiser

Alexandria Gazette

American Commercial and Daily

Advertiser (Baltimore)

American Weekly Mercury (Philadelphia)

Baltimore Sun

Bath (Eng.) Chronicle and

Weekly Gazette

Boston Courier

Boston Evening-Post

Boston Gazette

Boston Gazette, or Country Journal

Boston News-Letter

Boston Post-Boy

Boston Weekly Advertiser

Burlington (Iowa) Gazette

Caledonian Mercury (UK)

Charleston Courier

Cincinnati Whig

Connecticut Courant

Connecticut Journal

Connecticut Journal, and the

New-Haven Post-Boy

Daily National Advertiser (Washington)

Daily Picayune (New Orleans)

Daily Telegraph (Jersey City, N.J.)

Derby (Eng.) Mercury

The Emancipator

Essex (Mass.) Gazette

Farmer’s Cabinet (Amherst, N.H.)

Federal Republican (Baltimore)

Gazetteer and New Daily

Advertiser (London)

Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia)

General Evening Post (London)

Georgia Weekly Telegraph

Kalamazoo Gazette

Kentucky Gazette

Lloyd’s Evening Post (London)

London Chronicle

London Evening Post

London Gazette

Martinsburg (Va.) Gazette

Maryland Gazette

Massachusetts Gazette, and the

Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser

Massachusetts Spy

Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser

National Gazette and Literary

Register (Philadelphia)

National Intelligencer (Washington)

National Daily Intelligencer (Washington)

New Bedford (Mass.) Mercury

Newburyport (Mass.) Morning Herald

New Hampshire Gazette

New-Hampshire Gazette, and

Historical Chronicle

New London (Conn.) Gazette

Newport Mercury

New York Commercial Advertiser

New-York Gazette

New York Gazette & General Advertiser

New-York Gazette, or Weekly Post-Boy

New York Herald

New-York Journal

New York Journal of Commerce

New-York Mercury

New York Spectator

New York Sun

New York Times

Northampton (Eng.) Mercury

Ohio State Journal

Pennsylvania Chronicle

Pennsylvania Gazette

Pennsylvania Packet

Pennsylvania Packet; and

General Advertiser

Providence Gazette

Providence Gazette, and Country Journal

Public Advertiser (Hagerstown, Md.)

Public Advertiser (London)

Public Ledger (London)

Quebec Gazette

Rhode-Island Republican

Richmond Enquirer

Salem Gazette

Salem Register

(p.249) Savannah Republican

Scioto (Ohio) Gazette

South Carolina Gazette

South-Carolina Gazette, and Country Journal

Southern Patriot (Charleston)

Spirit of the Times (New York)

Stamford (Eng.) Mercury

Trenton ( N.J.) Federalist

The Union (Washington, Ky.)

Virginia Argus

Virginia Gazette

Virginia Telegraph

Washington Post

Whitehall Evening Post or

London Intelligencer

Wisconsin Democrat

Wisconsin Enquirer


American Masonic Register

Annual Register

Critical Review

Franklin Journal, and American

Mechanics’ Magazine

Gentleman’s Magazine

Illustrated London News

London Magazine: or, Gentleman’s

Monthly Intelligencer

Miscellaneous Correspondence

in Prose & Verse

Moral & Entertaining Magazine

Presbyterian Magazine

Scots Magazine

Universal Magazine

Universal Magazine of

Knowledge and Pleasure

Youth’s Cabinet

Other Published Primary Sources

An Account of the Earthquake Which Destroyed the City of Lisbon … Illustrative of the Great Picture of the Earthquake … . London: W. Glendinning, 1800.

An Account of the late Dreadful Earthquake and Fire, which destroyed the City of Lisbon. 3rd ed. Boston: Green and Russell, 1756.

Acts and Resolves, Public and Private, of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. 21 vols. Boston: Wright and Potter, 1869–1922.

Adams, Nathaniel. Annals of Portsmouth: Comprising a Period of Two Hundred Years from the First Settlement of the Town. Portsmouth, N.H.: Published by the Author, 1825.

Addressed to the Reverend the Clergy, of All Religious Denominations, throughout the United States. Portsmouth, N.H.: n.p., 1807.

An Address to the Inhabitants of Great-Britain; Occasioned by the late earthquake at Lisbon. London: J. Buckland, 1755.

Advice to England; or, Resolution, a Poem, Occasioned by the Late Earthquake. London: John Hinton, 1750.

Alcock, Thomas. A Sermon on the Late Earthquakes, More particularly that at Lisbon. Oxford: Richard Clements, 1756.

[Alexander, Ann Tuke]. Remarks on the Theatre, and on the Late Fire in Richmond, Virginia. York, Eng.: T. Wilson and Son, 1812.

American State Papers. 38 vols. Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1832–61.

Andrés, José. We Fed an Island: The True Story of Rebuilding Puerto Rico, One Meal at a Time. With Richard Wolffe. New York: Anthony Bourdain/Ecco, 2018.

Andrews, Evangeline Walker, and Charles McLean Andrews, eds. Jonathan Dickinson’s Journal, or, God’s Protecting Providence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945.

(p.250) Anguish, Thomas. Allegiance and Support, A Debt of Gratitude to His Majesty. London: H. Whitridge, 1745.

———. A Sermon preached at St. Nicholas, Deptford, on the Fast Day appointed by Royal Proclamation. London: John Clarke, 1756.

Ashton, Thomas. A Sermon Preached on Occasion of the General Fast Appointed by Royal Proclamation. London: J. Kippax, 1756.

An Awful Calamity Occasioned by the Conflagration of the Theatre at Richmond. London: Darton, Harvey, and Co., 1812.

Bailey, Joseph. God’s Wonders in the Great Deep: or, A Narrative of the Shipwreck of the Brigantine Alida and Catharine. New York: James Parker, 1750.

Barbour, Philip L., ed. The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580–1630). 3 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Baretti, Joseph. A Journey from London to Genoa; Through England, Portugal, Spain, and France. 4 vols. London: T. Davis and L. Davis, 1770.

Barrett, Philip. Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith. Richmond: James Woodhouse and Co., 1859.

Barrow, John. A Collection of Authentic, Useful, and Entertaining Voyages. 3 vols. London: J. Knox, 1765.

Bear, James A., Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton, eds. Jefferson’s Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767–1826. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Biddulph, John. A Poem on the Earthquake at Lisbon. London: W. Owen, 1755.

Boyd, Julian P., et al., eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. 43 vols. to date. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954–.

Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647. Edited by Francis Murphy. New York: Modern Library, 1981.

[Brooke, Christopher.] A Poem on the Late Massacre in Virginia, With particular mention of those men of note that suffered in that disaster. London: G. Eld, 1622.

———. “A Poem on the Late Massacre in Virginia.” Edited by Robert C. Johnson. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 72 (1964): 259–92.

Burt, John. Earthquakes, The Effects of God’s Wrath. Newport, R.I.: J. Franklin, 1755.

Butterfield, L. H., et al., eds. The Diary and Autobiography of John Adams. 4 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961.

By George Clinton, governor of the state of New-York … a proclamation. New York: n.p., 1793.

By His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq.; … A brief. Portsmouth, N.H.: Daniel Fowle, 1760.

By His Excellency Horatio Sharpe, Esq.; … A brief. Annapolis: Jonas Green, 1760.

By His Excellency Thomas Pownall, Esq.; … A brief. Boston: John Draper, 1760.

Caldwell, Charles. A Reply to Dr. Haygarth’s “Letter to Dr. Percival, on Infectious Fevers,” and His “Address to the College of Physicians at Philadelphia, on the Prevention of the American Pestilence.” Philadelphia: Thomas and William Bradford, 1802.

“Capt. Byrd’s Letters Continued.” Virginia Historical Register 2 (1849): 78–83.

Carey, Mathew. A Desultory Account of the Yellow Fever, prevalent in Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1793.

———. A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, lately prevalent in Philadelphia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1793.

(p.251) A Catalogue of the books belonging to the Library Company of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson, 1789.

Chandler, Samuel. The Character of a Great and Good King Full of Days, Riches, and Honour. London: J. Noon, 1760.

———. The Scriptural Account of the Cause and Intention of Earthquakes. London: John Noon, 1750.

The Charter Granted By Their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, to the Inhabitants of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in New-England. Boston: S. Kneeland, 1759.

Chauncy, Charles. Earthquakes a Token of the righteous Anger of God. Boston: Edes and Gill, 1755.

Chetwood, W. R. The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Robert Boyle … To which is added, the Voyage, Shipwreck, and Miraculous Preservation, of Richard Castelman. London: John Watts, 1726.

Clark, Samuel. A Sermon Preached at Daventry … On Occasion of the Late Earthquake at Lisbon. London: James Buckland, 1756.

Cobbett, William, ed. Cobbett’s Parliamentary History of England. 36 vols. London: T. C. Hansard, 1806–20.

A Concise Statement of the Awful Conflagration of the Theatre, in the City of Richmond. Philadelphia: n.p., 1812.

Congressional Globe. 46 vols. Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, 1834–73.

Congressional Record. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874–.

Cooper, Samuel. A Sermon upon the Occasion of the Death of our Late Sovereign. Boston: John Draper, 1761.

Copland, Patrick. Virginia’s God be Thanked, or A sermon of thanksgiving for the happie successe of the affayres in Virginia this last yeare. London: William Sheffard and John Bellamie, 1622.

Council for Virginia. A Briefe Declaration of the Present State of Things in Virginia. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616.

———. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation begun in Virginia. London: George Eld, 1610.

———. A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colony in Virginia. London: Eliot’s Court Press and William Stansby, 1610.

Crashaw, William. A sermon preached in London before the right honorable the Lord LaWarre. London: William Welby, 1610.

[Crouch, Nathaniel]. The General History of Earthquakes. 1694. Reprint, London: A. Bettesworth, 1734.

Dana, Joseph. Tribute of Sympathy … on the late Overwhelming Calamity at Richmond, Virginia. Newburyport, Mass.: E. W. Allen, 1812.

Davies, Samuel. A Sermon Delivered at Nassau-Hall. Boston: R. Draper, 1761.

———. Sermons on Important Subjects. Boston: Lincoln and Edmands, 1810.

Defoe, Daniel. A Journal of the Plague Year. Edited by George Rice Carpenter. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896.

———. Robinson Crusoe. Norton Critical Edition. 2nd ed. Edited by Michael Shinagel. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.

———. The Storm. Edited by Richard Hamblyn. New York: Penguin Classics, 2005.

Dexter, Franklin Bowditch, ed. Extracts from the Itineraries and Other Miscellanies of Ezra (p.252) Stiles, D.D., LL.D., 1755–1794, with a Selection from His Correspondence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1916.

Dickinson, Jonathan. God’s Protecting Providence Man’s Surest Help and Defence in Times of Greatest Difficulty and Most Imminent Danger. Philadelphia: Reinier Jansen, 1699.

The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive. NISEE e-Library. https://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Earthquakes Improved, or Solemn Warning to the World. Boston: J. Green, 1755.

Edwards, John. Warning to Sinners, or An Address to All Play-Actors … and the World at Large. New York: published for the author, 1812.

Ellms, Charles. Shipwrecks and Disasters at Sea, or Historical Narratives of the Most Noted Calamities, and Providential Deliverances from Fire and Famine, on the Ocean. Boston: S. N. Dickinson, 1836.

———. The Tragedy of the Seas; or, Sorrow on the Ocean, Lake, and River, from Shipwreck, Plague, Fire, and Famine. New York: Israel Post, 1841.

Everett, Edward, ed. The Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster. 18 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1903.

[Falconer, William]. The Shipwreck: A Poem, In Three Cantos. London: A. Millar, 1762.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. “Session 6: Defining Disaster.” https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/aemrc/courses/coursesunderdev/hazdisusems.aspx. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Figueiredo, Antonio Pereira de. A narrative of the earthquake and fire of Lisbon by … an eye-witness thereof … Translated from the Latin. London: G. Hawkins, 1756.

Fisher, George D. History and Reminiscences of the Monumental Church, Richmond, Virginia, from 1814 to 1878. Richmond: Whittet and Shepperson, 1880.

Fisher, Samuel Rowland. Philadelphia, 11th Month, 18th, 1793, Respected Friend … Philadelphia: n.p., 1793.

Flagg, Edmund. Far West, or, A Tour beyond the Mountains. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1838.

Foster, J. Heron. A Full Account of the Great Fire at Pittsburgh … with the Individual Losses and Contributions for Relief. Pittsburgh: J. W. Cook, 1845.

Foxcroft, Thomas. The Earthquake, A Divine Visitation. Boston: S. Kneeland, 1756.

Francis’ Metallic Lifeboat Company. New York: W. C. Bryant and Co., 1852.

Freke, John. A Plain Account of the Cause of Earthquakes. London: W. Innys and J. Richardson, 1756.

A Full Account of the Burning of the Richmond Theatre. Richmond: J. Edwin Goode, 1858.

Furness, W. H. A Discourse … Occasioned by the Loss of the Lexington. Philadelphia: C. A. Elliott, 1840.

Gibbons, Thomas. A Sermon Preached at Haberdashers-Hall … on Occasion of the tremendous Earthquake at Lisbon. London: J. Buckland, 1756.

Gilman, Samuel. A Monody on the Victims, and Sufferers by the Late Conflagration in the City of Richmond. Boston: Charles Williams, T. B. Wait and Co., 1812.

Grey, Zachary. A Chronological and Historical Account of the Most Memorable Earthquakes. Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1750.

———. A Farther Account of Memorable Earthquakes. Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1756.

Halifax, James. A Sermon Preach’d in St. John’s Chapel in the Parish of St. Andrew Holborn. London: J. Hughes, 1756.

[Hanway, Jonas]. The Case of the Canadians at Montreal distressed by Fire: Motives for a (p.253) subscription towards the relief of the sufferers at Montreal in Canada, by a dreadful fire. London: n.p., 1766.

———. A Summary of the Case of the Sufferers by fire at Montreal. London: n.p., 1766.

Haven, Samuel. The Supreme Influence of the Son of God, in appointing, directing, and terminating the reign of Princes: A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of King George the Second. Portsmouth, N.H.: D. Fowle, 1761.

Hening, William Waller. Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia … 13 vols. Richmond: Samuel Pleasants Jr., 1809–23.

[Howe, Thomas]. An Account of the Late Dreadful Hurricane, which happened on the 3st of August, 1772. Basseterre, St. Christopher: Thomas Howe, 1772.

Howell, George Rogers, and Jonathan Tenney. Bi-centennial History of Albany … from 1609 to 1886. New York: W. W. Munsell and Co., 1886.

Howland, S. A. Disasters by Steam, Fire, and Water: With Elegant Engravings. Worcester, Mass.: Dorr, Howland and Co., 1842.

———. Steamboat Disasters and Railroad Accidents in the United States. Worcester, Mass.: Dorr, Howland and Co., 1840.

Hunter, Thomas. An Historical Account of Earthquakes, Extracted from the most Authentic Historians. Liverpool: R. Williamson, 1756.

———. National Wickedness the Cause of National Misery. Liverpool: R. Williamson, 1756.

Jackson, Donald, and Dorothy Twohig, eds. The Diaries of George Washington. 6 vols. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1976–79.

Janeway, James. Mr. James Janeway’s Legacy to his Friends, Containing Twenty Seven Famous Instances of Gods Providence in and about Sea Dangers and Deliverances. London: Dorman Newman, 1674.

———. A Seasonable and Earnest Address to the Citizens of London. 1666. Reprint, Boston: Benjamin Mecom, 1760.

———. A Token for Children … To which is added, A Token, for the Children of New England. Boston: Nicholas Boone, 1700.

———. A Token for Mariners. London: Hugh Newman, 1698.

Johnstown Flood: Report of the Citizens’ Relief Committee, of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: Myers, Shinkle, and Co., 1890.

J[ohonnot], A[ndrew]. A Poem on the Rebuke of God’s Hand in the Awful Desolation made by Fire in the Town of Boston. Boston: Fowle and Draper, 1760.

Jones, David. A Discourse upon the Great Fire of London. 1666. Reprint, Boston: Fowle and Draper, 1760.

Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York, at Their Fifty-Ninth Session. Albany: E. Crowell, 1836.

Journal of the Honourable House of Representatives, of His Majesty’s province of the Massachusetts-Bay … on … the twenty-ninth day of May … 1765. Boston: Green and Russell, 1765.

Kaminski, John P., et al., eds. The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Digital ed. Charlottesville: Rotunda/University of Virginia Press, https://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/RNCN.html. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Kennedy, John Pendleton, ed. Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1770–1772. Richmond: Colonial Press, E. Wadley Co., 1906.

Kingsbury, Susan Myra, ed. Records of the Virginia Company. 4 vols. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1906–35.

(p.254) Knox, Hugh. A Discourse Delivered on the 6th of September, 1772, In the Dutch Church of St. Croix. St. Croix: n.p., 1772.

A Lady. The Child’s Gem. New York: Samuel Coleman, 1839.

Lardner, Dionysius. The Steam Engine Explained and Illustrated: With an Account of Its Invention and Progressive Improvement, and Its Application to Navigation and Railways; Including Also a Memoir of Watt. London: Taylor and Walton, 1840.

Lawson, Deodat. Threnodia, or A Mournfull Remembrance. Boston: Bartholomew Green, 1694.

“Letters of Roger Atkinson, 1769–1776.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 15 (1908): 345–59.

Lines Made After the Great Earthquake. Boston: n.p., 1755.

Lloyd, James T. Lloyd’s Steamboat Directory, and Disasters on the Western Waters. Cincinnati: James T. Lloyd and Co., 1856.

Lloyd, Rees. The Richmond Alarm: A Plain and Familiar Discourse … between a Father and His Son. Pittsburgh: Robert Ferguson and Co., 1815.

Lothrop, Samuel Kirkland. A Sermon … on the Destruction of the Lexington by Fire. Boston: John H. Eastburn, 1840.

Mancall, Peter C., ed. Travel Narratives from the Age of Discovery. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Mather, Cotton. Compassions Called For: An Essay of Profitable Reflections on Miserable Spectacles. Boston: B. Green, 1711.

———. Magnalia Christi Americana. 2 vols. 1702. Reprint, Hartford, Conn.: Silas Andrus and Son, 1855.

Mather, Increase. An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences Wherein an Account Is Given of Many Remarkable and Very Memorable Events Which Have Happened This Last Age, Especially in New-England. Boston: Samuel Green, 1684.

May, Robert. A Voice from Richmond: And Other Addresses to Children and Youth. Philadelphia: American Sunday School Union, 1842.

Mayhew, Jonathan. The Expected Dissolution of All Things, a Motive to Universal Holiness. Boston: Edes and Gill, 1755.

———. God’s Hand and Providence to be Religiously Acknowledged in Public Calamities. Boston: Richard Draper, 1760.

McCarthy, Carlton. Walks about Richmond: A Story for Boys, and a Guide to Persons Visiting the City, Desiring to See the Principle Points of Interest. Richmond: McCarthy and Ellyson, 1870.

McIlwaine, Henry R., et al., eds. Executive Journals of the Council of Virginia, 1680–1775. 6 vols. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1925–66.

McLeod, Mrs. Hugh [Rebecca Lamar]. “The Loss of the Steamer Pulaski.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 3 (1919): 63–95.

Memorial of the Sundry Proprietors and Managers of American Steam Vessels. New York: n.p., 1840.

Messages and Papers of the Presidents. American Presidency Project. http://presidency.proxied.lsit.ucsb.edu/ws/. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Miller, Samuel. Theatrical Exhibitions. New York: American Tract Society, ca. 1830.

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee, appointed on the 14th September, 1793. Philadelphia: R. Aitken and Son, 1794.

(p.255) [Mordecai, Samuel]. Richmond in By-Gone Days: Being Reminiscences of an Old Citizen. Richmond: G. M. West, 1856.

Moss, Charles. A Sermon Preached at the Parish Church of St. James, Westminster. London: J. Whiston and B. White, 1756.

Nicholson, Colin, ed. The Papers of Francis Bernard, 5 vols. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007–15.

The North American Tourist. New York: A. T. Goodrich, 1839.

Nowell, William. A Sermon preached at the Parish Church of Wolsingham. Newcastle: I. Thompson and Company, 1756.

O’Lynch, John. Narrative and Report of the Causes and Circumstances of the Deplorable Conflagration. Richmond: n.p., 1812.

Pennington, John. A Serious Call to Repentance. Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1756.

Pennsylvania Archives. 1st ser., 12 vols. Philadelphia: J. Severns, 1852–56.

Percy, George. “A True Relation.” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine 3 (1922): 259–82.

Plaisted, Bartholomew. A Journal from Calcutta in Bengal … in the Year MDCCL. 2nd ed. London: T. Kennersly, 1758.

A Poem on the Late Earthquake at Lisbon, to which is added, Thoughts in a Church-Yard. London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1755.

Pond, James L. History of Life-Saving Appliances, and Military and Naval Constructions, Invented and Manufactured by Joseph Francis. New York: E. D. Slater, 1885.

Preston, Daniel, et al., eds. The Papers of James Monroe. 6 vols. to date. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003–.

Proceedings of the Coroner in the Case of the Steamer Lexington. New York: n.p., 1840.

Public Documents, Printed by Order of the Senate of the United States: First Session of the Twenty-Sixth Congress. 8 vols. Washington, D.C.: Blair and Rives, 1840.

Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America. 8 vols. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845–67.

Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus, or, Purchas His Pilgrimes. 20 vols. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1905–7.

Redfield, W. C. “On the Supposed Collapse of Steam Boilers, and the Means of Preventing Explosions.” American Journal of Science and Arts 21 (Jan. 1832): 149–91.

Redman, John. An Account of the Yellow Fever as It Prevailed in Philadelphia in the Autumn of 1762: A Paper Presented to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia … September 7, 1793. Philadelphia: n.p., 1865.

Reflections Physical and Moral, upon the Various and numerous uncommon Phenomena, … which have happened from the Earthquake at Lima, to the present Time. London: A. Millar, 1756.

Report of the Committee Appointed by the Citizens of Cincinnati. Cincinnati: Alexander Flash, 1838.

Report of the Johnstown Flood Committee. Pittsburgh: Geo. T. Swank, 1890.

Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, of the Statistics and History of the Steam Marine of the United States. 1852. Proquest Congressional. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Revised Statutes of the State of New York … Passed from 1828 to 1835 Inclusive. 3 vols. Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen, 1836.

Richards, George. Repent! Repent! Or Likewise Perish! Philadelphia: Lydia R. Bailey, 1812.

(p.256) Rogers, William M. A Sermon, Occasioned by the Loss of the Harold and the Lexington. Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1840.

A Satirical Review of the Manifold Falshoods and Absurdities hitherto publish’d concerning the Earthquake. London: A. and C. Corbett, 1756.

A Serious Inquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Stage … by the Rev. John Witherspoon, also A Sermon on the Burning of the Theatre at Richmond, &c. by Samuel Miller. New York: Whiting and Watson, 1812.

“Sierra Club: Massive Army Corp Project Threatens Hudson River & New York Bay: Won’t Work,” 11 July 2018. New Jersey Insider. https://www.insidernj.com/press-release/sierra-club-massive-army-corp-project-threatens-hudson-river-new-york-bay-wont-work/. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

Smith, J. R. The Causes of Steamboat Explosions, and the Evils under which They Have Been Permitted to Occur. New Orleans: True Delta, 1852.

Smith, William. History of Canada: From Its First Discovery, to the Year 1791. 2 vols. Quebec: J. Neilson, 1815.

Stanford, John. Aetna, a Discourse … Intended as a Moral Improvement. New York: E. Conrad, 1824.

Steamboat Accidents, Loss of Life, Etc.: Letter from J. P. Van Tyne to the Hon. J. R. Underwood. 1840. Proquest Congressional. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Stone, John S. A Sermon, Occasioned by the Burning of the Steamer Lexington. Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1840.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. “The Canal Boat.” Godey’s Lady’s Book, Oct. 1841, 167–69.

Theatre on Fire. Awful Calamity! Boston: n.p., 1812.

A Theocrate. Five Important Questions … Occasioned by Serious Reflections on the Alarming and Awfully Severe Visitation of the Theatre in Richmond. N.p., 1812.

To the Selectmen of the Town of [blank] 1811. Newburyport, Mass.: n.p., 1811.

A True and Particular Account of the Late Dreadful Earthquake at Lisbon to Which is Added a Mournful Copy of Verses on the Occasion: Also the Heads of a Sermon by the Reverend Mr. Hervey. London: n.p., 1756.

A True and Particular Relation of the Dreadful Earthquake Which Happen’d at Lima, the Capital of Peru, and the Neighbouring Port of Callao. London: T. Osborne, 1748.

Twohig, Dorothy, et al., eds. The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series. 20 volumes to date.Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1987–.

Two Very Circumstantial Accounts of the Late Dreadful Earthquake at Lisbon. Boston: D. Fowle and Z. Fowle, 1756.

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, ed. Narratives of Early Virginia, 1606–1625. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1907.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. New York–New Jersey Harbor and Tributaries Coastal Storm Risk Management Feasibility Study. http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/Portals/37/docs/civilworks/projects/nj/coast/NYNJHATS/NJHatPres.pdf?ver=2017–10–16–141621–747. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

U.S. Congress. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States. 43 vols. Washington, D.C.: Gales & Seaton; Government Printing Office, 1826–73.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. Federal Disaster Assistance: Federal Departments and Agencies Obligated at Least $277.6 Billion during Fiscal Years 2005 through 2014. Sept. 2016. https://www.gao.gov/assets/680/679977.pdf. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

———. 2017 Hurricanes and Wildfires: Initial Observations on the Federal Response and Key (p.257) Recovery Challenges. Sept. 2018. https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/694231.pdf. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

U.S. Statutes at Large. 125 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1845–2011.

Van Horne, John C., ed. Correspondence of William Nelson as Acting Governor of Virginia, 1770–71. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1988.

“Virginia in 1771.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 6 (1893): 124–28.

Visitor’s Guide to Richmond and Vicinity. Richmond: B. Bates, 1871.

Voltaire. Poem upon the Lisbon Disaster. Trans. Anthony Hecht. Lincoln, Mass.: Penmaen Press, 1977.

A Volume of Records Relating to the Early History of Boston: Miscellaneous Papers. Boston: n.p., 1900.

Votes and Proceedings of the Lower House of the Assembly of … Maryland; November session, 1765. Annapolis: Jonas Green, 1766.

Waterhouse, Edward. A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia With a Relation of the Barbarous Massacre. London: G. Eld, 1622.

[Webb, William]. An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the Doddington Indiaman, and of the Surprising Adventures, and Distresses, of those on Board, who survived the Shipwreck; from the Journal of one of the Surviving Officers. 1756. Reprint, New York: James Parker, 1762.

[Weild, C.]. A Warning Voice from a Watery Grave! Solemn Proof of the Uncertainty of Life, and Importance of an Early Preparation for Death! New York: Sacket and Sargent, 1840.

Wesley, John. Some Serious Thoughts Occasioned by the Late Earthquake at Lisbon. Dublin: n.p., 1756.

Wesley, John, and Charles Wesley. Hymns occasioned by the earthquake, March 8, 1750 … and … Occasioned by the destruction of Lisbon. 2nd ed. Bristol: E. Farley, 1756.

Whitaker, Alexander. Good Newes From Virginia. London: Felix Kyngston, 1613.

Whitefield, George. A Letter from a Clergyman at London to the Remaining Disconsolate Inhabitants of Lisbon. 4th ed. London: R. Griffiths, 1756.

Whiton, John M. Sketches of the History of New-Hampshire, from its Settlement, in 1623, to 1833: Comprising Notices of the Memorable Events and Interesting Incidents of Two Hundred and Ten Years. Concord, N.H.: Marsh, Capon, and Lyon, 1834.

Wilkinson, John. The Seaman’s Preservation: Or, Safety in Shipwreck. London: T. Osborne, 1759.

———. Tutamen Nauticum: or, the Seaman’s Preservation from Shipwreck. 2nd ed. London: n.p., 1763.

Willis, William. The History of Portland from Its First Settlement. 2 vols. Portland, Maine: Charles Day and Co., 1831–33.

Wingfield, Edward Maria. A Discourse of Virginia. 1608. Reprint, Boston: J. Wilson and Son, 1860.

Winthrop, John. A Lecture on Earthquakes. Boston: Edes and Gill, 1755.

Wright, Louis B., ed. A Voyage to Virginia in 1609: Two Narratives. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013.

Secondary Sources

Abrams, M. H. Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

(p.258) Aguirre, Benigno E. “Better Disaster Statistics: The Lisbon Earthquake.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43 (2012): 27–42.

Aldrich, Mark. Death Rode the Rails: American Railroad Accidents and Safety, 1828–1965. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Allgor, Catherine. Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000.

Alvey, Edward. The Fredericksburg Fire of 1807. Fredericksburg, Va.: Historic Fredericksburg Foundation, 1988.

Ambler, Charles Henry. Thomas Ritchie: A Study in Virginia Politics. Richmond: Bell Book and Stationery Co., 1913.

American National Biography. Online edition.

Amory, Hugh, and David D. Hall, eds. A History of the Book in America. Vol. 1, The Colonial Book in the Atlantic World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Anderson, Douglas. William Bradford’s Books: Of Plimmoth Plantation and the Printed Word. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Anderson, Virginia DeJohn. Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Andrews, K. R., et al., eds. The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic, and America, 1480–1650. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1979.

Andrews, William D. “The Literature of the 1727 New England Earthquake.” Early American Literature 8 (1973): 281–94.

Apel, Thomas. Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds: Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2016.

———. “The Thucydidean Moment: History, Science, and the Yellow-Fever Controversy, 1793–1805.” Journal of the Early Republic 34 (2014): 315–47.

Appleby, Joyce. Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.

———. Shores of Knowledge: New Work Discoveries and the Scientific Imagination. New York: W. W. Norton, 2013.

Araújo, Ana Cristina. “The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755—Public Distress and Political Propaganda.” E-Journal of Portuguese History 4 (2006): 1–25. https://digitalis.uc.pt/en/artigo/lisbon_earthquake_1755_public_distress_and_political_propaganda.

Armstrong, Maurice W. “The Dissenting Deputies and the American Colonies.” Church History 29 (1960): 298–320.

Baker, Meredith Henne. “1811 Theater Fire Victim List.” The Richmond Theater Fire. https://www.theaterfirebook.com/victims-list. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

———. The Richmond Theater Fire: Early America’s First Great Disaster. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.

Barker-Benfield, G. J. The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity. London: SAGE, 1992.

Ben-Zvi, Yael. “Ethnography and the Production of Foreignness in Indian Captivity Narratives.” American Indian Quarterly 32 (2008): 9–33.

Berry, Stephen R. A Path in Mighty Waters: Shipboard Life and Atlantic Crossings to the New World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Biel, Steven, ed. American Disasters. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

(p.259) Bierick, Harold A., Jr. “The First Instance of U.S. Foreign Aid: Venezuelan Relief in 1812.” Inter-American Affairs 9 (1955): 47–59.

Blackmar, Elizabeth. Manhattan for Rent, 1785–1850. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Blackmore, Josiah. Manifest Perdition: Shipwreck Narrative and the Disruption of Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

Blanton, Dennis B. “Drought as a Factor in the Jamestown Colony, 1607–1612.” Historical Archaeology 34 (2000): 74–81.

Bloch, Marc. Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in England and France. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.

Boxer, C. R. Some Contemporary Reactions to the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755. Lisbon: Universidade de Lisboa Faculdade de Letras, 1956.

Bradburn, Douglas, and John C. Coombs, eds. Early Modern Virginia: Reconsidering the Old Dominion. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011.

Brewer, John. The Sinews of Power: War, Money, and the English State, 1688–1783. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in Revolt: Urban Life in America, 1743–1776. New York: Knopf, 1955

. Cities in the Wilderness: The First Century of Urban Life in America. 2nd ed. New ———.York: Knopf, 1955.

Brockmann, R. John. Exploding Steamboats, Senate Debates, and Technical Reports: The Convergence of Technology, Politics, and Rhetoric in the Steamboat Bill of 1838. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood, 2002.

Bronstein, Jamie. Caught in the Machinery: Workplace Accidents and Injured Workers in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Brown, Alexander. The Genesis of the United States. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1890.

Brown, John Kennedy. Limbs on the Levee: Steamboat Explosions and the Origins of Federal Public Welfare Regulation. Middlebourne, W.V.: International Steamboat Society, 1989.

Brown, Joshua. Beyond the Lines: Pictorial Reporting, Everyday Life, and the Crisis of Gilded Age America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Brown, Kathleen M. Foul Bodies: Cleanliness in Early America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Brust, James, and Wendy Shadwell. “The Many Versions and States of The Awful Conflagration of the Steam Boat Lexington.” Imprint 15 (Autumn 1990): 27–31.

Burg, B. R. “‘Women and Children First’: Popular Mythology and Disaster at Sea, 1840–1860.” Journal of American Culture 20 (1997): 1–9.

Burke, John G. “Bursting Boilers and the Federal Power.” Technology and Culture 7 (1966): 1–23.

Burton, John D. “‘The Awful Judgments of God upon the Land’: Smallpox in Colonial Cambridge, Massachusetts.” New England Quarterly 74 (2001): 495–506.

Bushman, Richard L. King and People in Provincial Massachusetts. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Butterfield, Roger. “Pictures in the Papers.” American Heritage 13 (June 1962): 96–97.

Calloway, Colin G. Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

(p.260) Candee, Richard M. “Social Conflict and Urban Rebuilding: The Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Brick Act of 1814.” Winterthur Portfolio 32 (1997): 119–46.

Carr, Revell. “‘We Will Never Forget’: Disaster in American Folksong from the Nineteenth Century to September 11, 2001.” New York Folklore 30 (2004): 36–41.

Chenoweth, M., et al., eds. “A Pioneer in Tropical Meteorology: William Sharpe’s Barbados Weather Journal, April–August 1680.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 (2007): 1957–64.

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

Clarfield, Gerard H. “Salem’s Great Inoculation Controversy, 1733–74.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 106 (1970): 277–96.

Clark, Peter. British Clubs and Societies, 1580–1800: The Origins of an Associational World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Coelho, Teresa Pinto, and Donald D. Howard. “The Image of Portugal in British Travel Literature, 1750–1850.” Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1850: Proceedings 20 (1990): 508–15.

Coen, Deborah R. “Introduction: Witness to Disaster: Comparative Histories of Earthquake Science and Response.” Science in Context 25 (March 2012): 1–15.

Cohen, Kenneth. They Will Have Their Game: Sporting Culture and the Making of the Early American Republic. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2017.

Coleman, Elizabeth Dabney. “The Great Fresh of 1771.” Virginia Cavalcade 1 (Autumn 1951): 20–22.

Colley, Linda. Britons: Forging a Nation, 1707–1837. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Conn, Steven. Americans against the City: Anti-urbanism in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Contu, Joan. Persuasion and Propaganda: Monuments and the Eighteenth-Century British Empire. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2006.

———. “Philanthropy and Propaganda: The Bust of George III in Montréal.” RACAR: Revue d’Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review 19 (1992): 59–67.

Cook, Donald E., Jr. “The Great Fire of Pittsburgh in 1845, or How a Great American City Turned Disaster into Victory.” Western Pennsylvania History 51 (1968): 127–53.

Cooper, Afua. The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montreal. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Cox, Thomas H. “Gibbons v. Ogden”, Law, and Society in the Early American Republic. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009.

Craven, Wesley Frank. The Dissolution of the Virginia Company: The Failure of a Colonial Experiment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1932.

Crothers, A. Glenn. “Commercial Risk and Capital Formation in Early America: Virginia Merchants and the Rise of American Marine Insurance, 1750–1815.” Business History Review 78 (2004): 607–33.

Culloford, S. G. William Strachey, 1572–1621. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1965.

Curtis, Heather D. Holy Humanitarians: American Evangelicals and Global Aid. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2018.

“Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe & the Robinsonades.” University of Florida Digital Collections. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/defoe. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Dauber, Michele Landis. The Sympathetic State: Disaster Relief and the Origins of the American Welfare State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

(p.261) Davidson, Cathy N. Revolution and the Word: The Rise of the Novel in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Davies, Gareth. “Dealing with Disaster: The Politics of Catastrophe in the United States, 1789–1861.” American Nineteenth Century History 14 (2013): 53–72.

———. “The Emergence of a National Politics of Disaster, 1865–1900.” Journal of Policy History 26 (2014): 305–26.

———. “Pre-modern Disaster Politics: Combating Catastrophe in the 1950s.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 47 (2017): 260–81.

Davis, Mike. Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998.

Davis, Natalie Z. “The Rites of Violence: Religious Riot in Sixteenth-Century France; A Rejoinder.” Past and Present 67 (1975): 51–91.

Davison, Charles. History of British Earthquakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1924.

“The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1996.” National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastdeadlyapp1.shtml. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Dean, Dennis R. “Benjamin Franklin and Earthquakes.” Annals of Science 46 (1989): 481–95.

Dennett, Andrea Stulman, and Nina Warnke. “Disaster Spectacles at the Turn of the Century.” Film History 4 (1990): 101–11.

D’Haen, Theo. “On How Not to Be Lisbon If You Want to Be Modern—Dutch Reactions to the Lisbon Earthquake.” European Review 14 (2006): 351–58.

Dictionary of American Biography. 22 vols. New York: Scribner, 1922–48.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Online edition.

Diefendorf, Barbara C. Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Ditz, Toby. “Shipwrecked; or, Masculinity Imperiled: Mercantile Representations of Failure and the Gendered Self in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia.” Journal of American History 81 (1994): 51–80.

Donagan, Barbara. “Providence, Chance, and Explanation: Some Paradoxical Aspects of Puritan Views of Causation.” Journal of Religious History 11 (1981): 385–403.

Donegan, Kathleen. Seasons of Misery: Catastrophe and Colonial Settlement in Early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Duffy, James. Shipwreck and Empire, Being an Account of Portuguese Maritime Disasters in a Century of Decline. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955.

Dunbaugh, Edwin W. Night Boat to New England, 1815–1900. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Dupigny-Girox, Lesley-Ann, and Cary J. Mock, eds. Historical Climate Variability and Impacts in North America. Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer, 2009.

Dyl, Joanna L. Seismic City: An Environmental History of San Francisco’s 1906 Earthquake. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

Dynes, Russell R. “The Lisbon Earthquake in 1755: The First Modern Disaster.” 2003. http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/294. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Ebel, John E. “The Cape Ann, Massachusetts Earthquake of 1755: A 250th Anniversary Perspective.” Seismological Research Letters 77 (Feb. 2006): 74–76.

Edgerton-Tarpley, Kathryn. “Tough Choices: Grappling with Famine in Qing China, the British Empire, and Beyond.” Journal of World History 24 (2013): 135–76.

(p.262) Edling, Max M. A Hercules in the Cradle: War, Money, and the American State, 1783–1867. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

———. A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of an American State. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Emlen, Robert P. “The Great Gale of 1815: Artifactual Evidence of Rhode Island’s First Hurricane.” Rhode Island History 2 (1990): 50–61.

Erickson, Stephen. “‘To Obviate a Scandalous Reflection’: Revisiting the Wreck of the Nottingham Galley.” New England Quarterly 83 (2010): 375–412.

Estes, J. Worth, and Billy Gordon Smith, eds. A Melancholy Scene of Devastation: The Public Response to the 1793 Philadelphia Yellow Fever Epidemic. Canton, Mass.: Science History Publications USA, 1997.

Eustace, Nicole. Passion Is the Gale: Emotion, Power, and the Coming of the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Fagan, Bryan. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Fahs, Alice. The Imagined Civil War: Popular Literature of the North and South, 1861–1865. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Fenn, Elizabeth. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Finger, Simon. The Contagious City: The Politics of Public Health in Early Philadelphia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012.

Fisher, Carl. “Innovation and Imitation in the Eighteenth-Century Robinsonade.” In The Cambridge Companion to Robinson Crusoe, edited by John Richetti, 99–111. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Fiske, John M. Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1902.

Fitz, Caitlin. Our Sister Republics: The United States in an Age of American Revolutions. New York: Liveright, 2016.

Flavell, Julie. When London Was the Capital of America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

“Flood History.” The Johnstown Flood Museum. https://www.jaha.org/attractions/johnstown-flood-museum/flood-history/. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Flowers, Margaret G., et al. “18th-Century Earthquakes and Apocalyptic Expectations: The Hymns of Charles Wesley.” Methodist History 42 (2004): 222–35.

Fogelman, Aaron. “Migrations to the Thirteen British North American Colonies.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 22 (1992): 691–702.

“Forty Foot High (and Risin’?).” Henrico County Historical Society Newsletter 36 (Mar. 2011).

Frazier, Ian. “The Day the Great Plains Burned: A Devastating Wildfire and Its Aftermath.” New Yorker, 5 Nov. 2018, 34–41.

Freeman, Thomas S. “Foxe’s Marian Martyrs.” In The Unabridged Acts and Monuments Online. http://www.johnfoxe.org/freeman-marion.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Friend, Craig Thompson, and Lorri Glover, eds. Death and the American South. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Fuller, Randall. From Battlefields Rising: How the Civil War Transformed American Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Games, Alison. “Violence on the Fringes: The Virginia (1622) and Aboyna (1624) Massacres.” History 99 (2014): 505–26.

(p.263) Gemery, Henry A. “Emigration from the British Isles to the New World, 1630–1700: Inferences from Colonial Populations.” Research in Economic History 5 (n.d.): 179–231.

Glover, Lorri, and Daniel Blake Smith. The Shipwreck That Saved Jamestown: The Sea Venture Castaways and the Fate of America. New York: Henry Holt, 2008.

Godbey, Emily. “Disaster Tourism and the Melodrama of Authenticity: Revisiting the 1889 Johnstown Flood.” Pennsylvania History 73 (2006): 273–315.

Golinski, Jan. British Weather and the Climate of Enlightenment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

———. “Debating the Atmospheric Constitution: Yellow Fever and the American Climate.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 49 (2016): 151–61.

Goodman, Nan. Shifting the Blame: Literature, Law, and the Theory of Accidents in Nineteenth-Century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Graham, Louis. “The Scientific Piety of John Winthrop of Harvard.” New England Quarterly 46 (1973): 112–18.

Gray, Peter. “Famine Relief Policy in Comparative Perspective: Ireland, Scotland, and Northwestern Europe, 1845–1849.” Eire/Ireland 32 (1997): 86–108.

“The Great Fire of London, 1666.” Museum of London. https://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/discover/great-fire-london-1666. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Griffin, Carl J. “The Great Famine in Colonial Context: Public Reaction and Responses in Britain before the ‘Black ’47.’” Historical Geography 42 (2014): 111–29.

Griffin, Patrick. The People with No Name: Ireland’s Ulster Scots, America’s Scots Irish, and the Creation of a British Atlantic World, 1689–1764. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Gronim, Sara Stidstone. “What Jane Knew: A Woman Botanist in the Eighteenth Century.” Journal of Women’s History 19 (2007): 33–59.

Grubb, Farley. “Morbidity and Mortality on the North Atlantic Passage: Eighteenth-Century German Immigration.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 17 (1987): 565–85.

Gudmestad, Robert. Steamboats and the Rise of the Cotton Kingdom. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

Guilhamet, Leon. Defoe and the Whig Novel: A Reading of the Major Fiction. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2010.

Hall, David D. Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Halttunen, Karen. Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.

———. “Humanitarianism and the Pornography of Pain in Anglo-American Culture.” American Historical Review 100 (1995): 303–34.

———. Murder Most Foul: The Killer and the American Gothic Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Hancock, David. Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Hansen, Kris A. Death Passage on the Hudson: The Wreck of the Henry Clay. Fleischmanns, N.Y.: Purple Mountain Press, 2004.

Hardy, Molly O’Hagan. “Figures of Authorship in Mathew Carey’s Transatlantic Yellow Fever Pamphlets.” Book History 17 (2014): 221–49.

Hartley, William G., and Fred E. Woods. “Explosion of the Steamboat Saluda: Tragedy and Compassion at Lexington, Missouri, 1852.” Missouri Historical Review 99 (2005): 281–305.

(p.264) Hartnell, Anna. “Katrina Tourism and a Tale of Two Cities: Visualizing Race and Class in New Orleans.” American Quarterly 61 (2009): 723–47.

Heil, Douglas. The Art of Stereography: Rediscovering Vintage Three-Dimensional Images. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2017.

Hemphill, C. Dallett. Bowing to Necessities: A History of Manners in America, 1620–1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Hewitt, Kenneth. Interpretations of Calamity: From the Viewpoint of Human Ecology. Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1983.

Hoffer, Peter Charles. Seven Fires: The Urban Infernos that Shaped America. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Hoffman, Susanna M., and Anthony Oliver-Smith, eds. Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2002.

Hogan, Charles. “Origins of U.S. Emergency Management.” Anna Maria College Online Programs. http://online.annamaria.edu/mpa/resource/emergency-management-history. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Holton, Woody. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Hoppit, Julian. “Financial Crises in Eighteenth-Century England.” Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 39 (1968): 39–58.

Horn, James. A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

Horowitz, Andy. “The Complete Story of the Galveston Horror: Trauma, History, and the Great Storm of 1900.” Historical Reflections 41 (2015): 95–108.

———. “Hurricane Betsy and the Politics of Disaster in New Orleans’ Lower Ninth Ward, 1965–1967.” Journal of Southern History 80 (2014): 893–934.

Hunt, Lynn, ed. The New Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Hunter, Louis C., and Beatrice Jones Hunter. Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History. 1949. Reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1969.

Huntress, Keith Gibson. Narratives of Shipwrecks and Disasters, 1586–1860. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1974.

Isenberg, Nancy, and Andrew Burstein, eds. Mortal Remains: Death in Early America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

Jasanoff, Maya. Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists in a Revolutionary World. New York: Knopf, 2011.

John, Richard R. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010.

———. Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Johns, Alessa, ed. Dreadful Visitations: Confronting Natural Catastrophe in the Age of Enlightenment. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Johnson, Sherry. Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Johnson, Walter. River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2013.

Jones, Marian Moser. The American Red Cross: From Clara Barton to the New Deal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

(p.265) Jones, William R. A Critical Edition of the Poetical Works of William Falconer. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

Joseph, M. K. “William Falconer.” Studies in Philology 47 (1950): 72–101.

Kammen, Michael G. A Rope of Sand: The Colonial Agents, British Politics, and the American Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968.

Kann, Mark E. A Republic of Men: The American Founders, Gendered Politics, and Patriarchal Politics. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Kasson, John F. Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

Kendrick, T. D. The Lisbon Earthquake. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1955.

Kent, Randolph, and John Ratcliffe. Responding to Catastrophes: U.S. Innovation in a Vulnerable World. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2008.

Kierner, Cynthia A. The Contrast: Manners, Morals, and Authority in the Early American Republic. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

Kinealy, Christine. Charity and the Great Hunger in Ireland: The Kindness of Strangers. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.

———. The Great Irish Famine: Impact, Ideology, and Rebellion. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Kingston, Christopher. “Governance and Institutional Change in Marine Insurance, 1350–1850.” European Review of Economic History 18 (2014): 1–18.

———. “Marine Insurance in Britain and America, 1720–1844: A Comparative Institutional Analysis.” Journal of Economic History 67 (2007): 379–409.

Kirby, Andrew. The Politics of Location: An Introduction. London: Methuen, 1982.

Knott, Sarah. Sensibility and the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Knowles, Scott Gabriel. “Lessons in the Rubble: The World Trade Center and the History of Disaster Investigations in the United States.” History and Technology 19 (2003): 9–28.

Kornfeld, Eve, “Crisis in the Capital: The Cultural Significance of Philadelphia’s Great Yellow Fever Epidemic.” Pennsylvania History 51 (1984): 189–205.

Kovacs, Claire L. “Pompeii and Its Material Reproductions: The Rise of a Tourist Site in the Nineteenth Century.” Journal of Tourism History 5 (2013): 30–39.

Kozak, Jan T., and Vladimir Cermák. The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters. Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer, 2010.

Kozak, Jan T., and Charles D. James. “Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake.” Earthquake Engineering Online Archive. NISEE e-Library https://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/files/documents/lisbon/index.html. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Kukla, Jon. Patrick Henry: Champion of Liberty. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2017.

Kunihara, Ken. “The Voice of God upon the Waters: Sermons on Steamboat Disasters in Antebellum America.” Coriolis: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Maritime Studies 2 (2011). http://ijms.nmdl.org/article/view/9119.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. “Apathy and Death in Early Jamestown.” Journal of American History 66 (1979): 24–40.

———. The Jamestown Project. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007.

———. “The Puzzle of the American Climate in the Early Colonial Period.” American Historical Review 87 (1982): 1278–83.

Labaree, Benjamin W. Patriots and Partisans: The Merchants of Newburyport, 1764–1815. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962.

(p.266) Lacqueur, Thomas W. The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Landis, Michele L. “Let Me Next Time Be Tried by Fire: Disaster Relief and the Origins of the American Welfare State, 1789–1874.” Northwestern University Law Review 92 (1998): 967–1034.

Landow, George P. Images of Crisis: Literary Iconography, 1750 to the Present. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.

Larsen, Svend Erik. “The Lisbon Earthquake and the Scientific Turn in Kant’s Philosophy.” European Review 14 (2006): 359–67.

LeBeau, Bryan F. Currier and Ives: America Imagined. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 2002.

Lefebvre, Henri. Introduction to Modernity: Twelve Preludes, September 1959–May 1961. Translated by John Moore. London: Verso, 1995.

Lehuu, Isabelle. Carnival on the Page: Popular Print Media in Antebellum America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Levine, Lawrence W. Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Levy, Jonathan. Freaks of Fortune: The Emerging World of Capitalism and Risk in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Lincoln, Margarette. “Shipwreck Narratives of the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century: Indicators of Culture and Identity.” Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 20 (1997): 155–72.

Lindberg, Paul. “From Private to Public Provision of Public Goods: English Lighthouses between the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” Journal of Policy History 25 (2013): 538–56.

Liscombe, Rhondri Windsor. Altogether American: Robert Mills, Architect and Engineer, 1781–1855. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Louis-Charles, Hans M. “State Sovereignty and Natural Hazards: A Study on the Legacy of the United Kingdom’s Imperial Practices and Disaster Management Activities of Their Island Possessions.” PhD diss., University of Delaware, 2016.

Lovejoy, David S. “Satanizing the American Indian.” New England Quarterly 67 (1994): 603–21.

Lübken, Uwe, and Christof Mauch. “Uncertain Environments: Natural Hazards, Risk, and Insurance in Historical Perspective.” Environment and History 17 (2011): 1–12.

“Luna Park.” Heart of Coney Island. http://www.heartofconeyisland.com/luna-park-coney-island.html. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Macadam, Joyce. “English Weather: The Seventeenth-Century Diary of Ralph Josselin.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43 (2012): 221–46.

Mackintosh, Will. “‘Ticketed Through’: The Commodification of Travel in the Nineteenth Century.” Journal of the Early Republic 32 (2012): 61–89.

Maier, Pauline. From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765–1776. New York: Knopf, 1972.

Marshall, P. J. “Who Cared about the Thirteen Colonies? Some Evidence from Philanthropy.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 27 (1999): 53–67.

Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

(p.267) Mashaw, Jerry L. Creating the Administrative Constitution: The Lost One Hundred Years of Administrative Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Maxwell, Kenneth. Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

May, Peter J. Recovering from Catastrophes: Federal Disaster Relief Policy and Politics. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1985.

Mayer, Robert. “The Reception of a Journal of the Plague Year and the Nexus of Fiction and History in the Novel.” ELH 57, no. 3 (1990): 529–55.

McCarthy, Kathleen D. American Creed: Philanthropy and the Rise of Civil Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

McConville, Brendan. The King’s Three Faces: The Rise and Fall of Royal America, 1688–1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

McCormmach, Russell. Weighing the World: The Reverend John Michell of Thornhill. New York: Springer, 2011.

McCullough, David. The Johnstown Flood: The Incredible Story behind One of the Most Devastating Disasters American History Has Ever Known. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.

McIlvenna, Noeleen. The Short Life of Free Georgia: Class and Slavery in the Colonial South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

McMurtrie, Douglas C. The First Printing in Virginia: The Abortive Attempt at Jamestown, the First Permanent Press at Williamsburg, the Early Gazettes, and the Work of Other Virginia Typographic Pioneers. Vienna, Aus.: H. Reichner Verlag, 1935.

McNeill, J. R. Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620–1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Mendes-Victor, Luis A., et al., eds. The Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited. New York: Springer, 2008.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Miller, Perry. “Errand into the Wilderness.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 10 (1953): 3–32

. “The Religious Impulse in the Founding of Virginia: Religion ———.and Society in the Early Literature.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 5 (1948): 492–522.

Milleti, Dennis. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 1999.

Miskolcze, Robin. Women and Children First: Nineteenth-Century Sea Narratives and American Identity. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012.

Mitchell-Cook, Amy. A Sea of Misadventures: Shipwreck and Survival in Early America. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

Molesky, Mark. This Gulf of Fire: The Destruction of Lisbon, or Apocalypse in the Age of Science and Reason. New York: Knopf, 2015.

Moniz, Amanda B. From Empire to Humanity: The American Revolution and the Origins of Humanitarianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

———. “Saving the Lives of Strangers: Humane Societies and the Cosmopolitan Provision of Charitable Aid.” Journal of the Early Republic 29 (2009): 607–40.

Montluzin, Emily Lorraine de. “‘Every Body Apprehended an Earthquake’: The Gentleman’s Magazine’s Reporting of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake and Its Aftermath.” Notes and Queries 61 (2014): 409–17.

(p.268) Mooney, M. J. “Tsunami: When the Sea Quakes.” Americas 42 (July 1990): 24–29.

Moore, Peter. The Weather Experiment: The Pioneers Who Sought to See the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975.

Morgan, Edmund S., and Helen M. Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1953.

Morris, Christopher. The Big Muddy: An Environmental History of the Mississippi and Its Peoples from Hernando de Soto to Hurricane Katrina. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Morrison, James V. Shipwrecked: Disaster and Transformation in Homer, Shakespeare, Defoe, and the Modern World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014.

Moss, David A. When All Else Fails: Government as the Ultimate Risk Manager. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Mulcahy, Matthew. “The ‘Great Fire’ of 1740 and the Politics of Disaster Relief in Colonial Charleston.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 99 (1998): 135–57.

———. Hubs of Empire: The Southeastern Lowcountry and British Caribbean. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

———. Hurricanes and Society in the Greater British Caribbean, 1624–1783. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

———. “Making Sense of Disasters in Early America—and Today.” American Historian, Feb. 2018, 37–42.

———. “The Port Royal Earthquake and the World of Wonders in Seventeenth-Century Jamaica.” Early American Studies 6 (2008): 391–421.

Murphy, Kathleen. “Prodigies and Portents: Providentialism in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake.” Maryland Historical Magazine 97 (2002): 397–421.

———. “Virginia’s Great Fresh of 1771 and the Politics of Disaster Relief.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 123 (2015): 298–323.

Murphy, Sharon Ann. Investing in Life: Insurance in Antebellum America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

Musson, R. M. W. “A History of British Seismology.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 11 (2013): 715–861.

Nash, Gary B. First City: Philadelphia and the Forging of Historical Memory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Nash, Roderick Frazier. Wilderness and the American Mind. 4th ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

“Natural Disasters in 2017: Lower Mortality, Higher Cost.” CRED CRUNCH, no. 50, Mar. 2018, https://cred.be/sites/default/files/CredCrunch50.pdf . Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Nelson, Megan Kate. Ruin Nation: Destruction and the American Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Newman, Richard S. Freedom’s Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

Nord, David Paul. “Teleology and News: The Religious Roots of American Journalism, 1630–1730.” Journal of American History 77 (1990): 9–38.

O’Brien, Susan. “A Transatlantic Community of Saints: The Great Awakening and the First Evangelical Network, 1735–1755.” American Historical Review 91 (1986): 811–32.

(p.269) Oleson, Alexandra, ed. The Pursuit of Knowledge in the Early American Republic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

O’Malley, Michael. “Local Relief during the Great Irish Famine, 1845–1850: The Case of Castlebar, County Mayo.” Eire/Ireland 32 (1997): 109–20.

O’Neill, Karen M. “Broken Levees, Broken Lives, and a Broken Nation after Hurricane Katrina.” Southern Cultures 14 (Summer 2008): 89–104.

Opal, Jason M. “The Labors of Liberality: Christian Benevolence and National Prejudice in the American Founding.” Journal of American History 94 (2008): 1082–1107.

O’Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson. An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Outhwaite, R. B. Dearth, Public Policy and Social Disturbance in England, 1550–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Oviatt, F. C. “Historical Study of Fire Insurance in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 26 (1905): 335–58.

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online edition.

Parker, Geoffrey. “Crisis and Catastrophe: The Global Crisis of the Seventeenth Century Reconsidered.” American Historical Review 113 (2008): 1053–79.

———. Global Crisis: War, Climate Change, and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013.

Parkinson, Robert G. The Common Cause: Creating Race and Nation in the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

Parrish, Susan Scott. American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

———. The Flood Year 1927: A Cultural History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.

Paskoff, Paul. Troubled Waters: Steamboat Disasters, River Improvements, and American Public Policy, 1821–1860. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007.

Patterson, K. David. “Yellow Fever Epidemics and Mortality in the United States, 1693–1905.” Social Science and Medicine 34 (1992): 855–65.

Pauly, Philip J. “Fighting the Hessian Fly: American and British Responses to Insect Invasion, 1776–1789.” Environmental History 7 (2002): 485–507.

Perkins, Edwin J. American Public Finance and Financial Services, 1700–1815. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1994.

Pettegree, Andrew. The Invention of News: How the World Came to Know about Itself. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Philip, Cynthia Owen. Robert Fulton: A Biography. New York: Franklin Watts, 1985.

Piola, Erica, ed. Philadelphia on Stone: Commercial Lithography in Philadelphia. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2012.

Porter, Harry Culverwell. “Alexander Whitaker: Cambridge Apostle to Virginia.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 14 (1957): 317–43.

Powell, J. H. Bring Out Your Dead: The Great Plague of Yellow Fever in Philadelphia in 1793. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949.

Prochaska, Frank. Royal Bounty: The Making of a Welfare Monarchy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Purvis, Thomas L. Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File, 1999.

Pyle, G. F. “The Diffusion of Cholera in the United States in the Nineteenth Century.” Geographic Analysis 1 (1969): 59–75.

(p.270) Quarantelli, E. L., ed. What Is a Disaster? London: Springer, 1998.

Quitt, Martin H. “Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607–1609: The Limits of Understanding.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 52 (1995): 227–58.

Rappaport, Rhoda. “Hooke on Earthquakes: Lectures, Strategy and Audience.” British Journal for the History of Science 19 (1986): 129–42.

Ratcliffe, John. “Bells, Barrels, and Bullion: Diving and Salvage in the Atlantic World, 1500 to 1800.” Nautical Research Journal 56 (2011): 34–56.

“Remembering the Johnstown Flood.” Johnstown Flood Museum. http://www.jaha.org/attractions/johnstown-flood-museum/flood-history/remembering-the-johnstown-flood/. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Remes, Jacob A. C. Disaster Citizenship: Survivors, Solidarity, and Power in the Progressive Era. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

Rigby, Catherine E. Dancing with Disaster: Environmental Histories, Narratives, and Ethics for Perilous Times. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015.

Ritchie, Hannah, and Max Roser. “Natural Disasters.” Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/natural-catastrophes. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Robles, Whitney Barlow. “Atlantic Disaster: Boston Responds to the Cape Ann Earthquake of 1755.” New England Quarterly 90 (2017): 7–35.

Rosen, Christine Meisner. The Limits of Power: Great Fires and the Process of City Growth in America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Rosenberg, Charles E. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, and Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005.

Rozario, Kevin. The Culture of Calamity: Disaster and the Making of Modern America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Sandukas, Gregory P. “Gently Down the Stream: How Exploding Steamboat Boilers in the 19th Century Ignited Federal Public Welfare Regulation.” 30 Apr. 2002. Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/10018995/Sandukas_redacted.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Sasson, Tehila, and James Vernon. “Practising the British Way of Famine: Technologies of Relief, 1770–1985.” European Review of History 22 (2015): 860–72.

Sawislak, Karen. Smoldering City: Chicagoans and the Great Fire, 1871–1874. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Schulman, Vanessa Meikle. Work Sights: The Visual Culture of Industry in Nineteenth-Century America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015.

Schutz, John A. Thomas Pownall, British Defender of American Liberty: A Study of Anglo-American Relations in the Eighteenth Century. Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark, 1951.

Schwartz, Stuart B. Sea of Storms: A History of Hurricanes in the Greater Caribbean from Columbus to Katrina. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Scott, Kenneth. “The Sandy Hook Lighthouse.” American Neptune 25 (1965): 123–27.

Searchable Sea Literature. Williams Mystic. https://sites.williams.edu/searchablesealit/. Accessed 12 Mar. 2019.

Sears, John F. “Hawthorne’s ‘The Ambitious Guest’ and the Significance of the Willey Disaster.” American Literature 52 (1982): 354–67.

———. Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

(p.271) Seeman, Erik R. Pious Persuasions: Laity and Clergy in Eighteenth-Century New England. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Shannon, Timothy M. Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Shapiro, Barbara J. A Culture of Fact: England, 1550–1720. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Shepley, Genoa. “By Which Melancholy Occurrence: The Disaster Prints of Nathaniel Currier, 1835–1840.” Panorama 1 (2015). http://journalpanorama.org/by-which-melancholy-occurrence-the-disaster-prints-of-nathaniel-currier-1835–1840/.

Shockley, Martin Staples. The Richmond Stage, 1784–1812. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1977.

Showalter, William J. “First Steamboat Explosion in the West.” Tallow Light 47, no. 2 (2016): 41–43.

Shrady, Nicholas. The Last Day: Wrath, Ruin, and Reason in the Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755. New York: Viking, 2008.

Sievers, Julie. “Drowned Pens and Shaking Hands: Sea Providence Narratives in Seventeenth-Century New England.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 63 (2006): 743–76.

Simon, Bryant. The Hamlet Fire: A Tragic Story of Cheap Food, Cheap Government, and Cheap Lives. New York: New Press, 2017.

Simpson, A. W. Brian. Cannibalism and the Common Law: The Story of the Last Tragic Voyage of the Mignonette and the Strange Legal Proceedings to Which It Gave Rise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Sirota, Brent S. The Christian Monitors: The Church of England and the Age of Benevolence, 1680–1730. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Slack, Paul. “Dearth and Social Policy in Early Modern England.” Social History of Medicine 5 (1992): 1–17.

———. The Impact of Plague in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.

Smith, Hannah. Georgian Monarchy: Politics and Culture, 1714–1760. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Smith, Mark M. Stono: Documenting and Interpreting a Southern Slave Revolt. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005.

Solnit, Rebecca. A Paradise Built in Hell: The Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster. New York: Viking, 2009.

Spencer, David R. The Yellow Journalism: The Press and America’s Emergence as a World Power. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2007.

Steele, Ian K. The English Atlantic, 1675–1740: An Exploration in Communication and Community. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Steinberg, Ted. Acts of God: The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Stevenson, D. Alan. The World’s Lighthouses before 1820. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.

Stilgoe, John. Lifeboat. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007.

Sutcliffe, Andrea. Steam: The Untold Story of America’s First Great Invention. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

(p.272) Tate, Thad W., and David L. Ammerman, eds. The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Taylor, George R. The Transportation Revolution, 1815–60. New York: Rinehart, 1951.

Tebeau, Mark. Eating Smoke: Fire in Urban America, 1800–1950. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Thomas, Keith. Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England, 1500–1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

———. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Scribner, 1971.

Thompson, Andrew C. George II: King and Elector. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Tierney, Kathleen. “Hurricane in New Orleans? Who Knew? Anticipating Katrina and Its Devastation.” Social Inquiry 78 (2008): 179–83.

Tierney, Kathleen, et al. “Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604 (Mar. 2006): 57–81.

Tilton, Eleanor M. “Lightning-Rods and the Earthquake of 1755.” New England Quarterly 13 (1940): 85–97.

Todd, Janet. Sensibility: An Introduction. London: Methuen, 1986.

Todd, Margo. “Providence, Chance and the New Science in Early Stuart Cambridge.” Historical Journal 29 (1986): 697–711.

Trotti, Michael Ayers. The Body in the Reservoir: Murder and Sensationalism in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Turner, Elizabeth Hayes. Women, Culture, and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston, 1880–1920. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

U.S. Census Bureau. “Population of 46 Urban Places: 1810.” https://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab04.txt. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

———. “Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1840.” https://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab07.txt. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

———. “Population of the 33 Urban Places: 1800.” http://www.census.gov/population/ www/documentation/twps0027/tab03.txt. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. “History of Federal Disaster Policy.” https://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/em/winter15/highlight1_sidebar.html. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

U.S. Department of Labor. “Factory Inspection Legislation.” https://www.dol.gov/dol/aboutdol/history/mono-regsafepart02.htm. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Valencius, Conevery Bolton. The Lost History of the New Madrid Earthquakes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Vanek, Morgan. “The Uses of Travel: Science, Empire and Change in 18th-Century Travel Writing.” Literature Compass 12 (2015): 555–64.

Vaughan, Alden T. American Genesis: Captain John Smith and the Founding of Virginia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

——. “‘Expulsion of the Salvages’: English Policy and the Virginia Massacre of 1622.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 35 (1978): 57–89.

Vickers, Daniel. Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in an Age of Sail. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Vickers, Ilse. Defoe and the New Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Vogel, Charity. The Angola Horror: The Train Wreck That Shocked the Nation and Transformed American Railroads. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

(p.273) Waldstreicher, David. In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Walker, Charles F. Shaky Colonialism: The 1746 Earthquake-Tsunami in Lima, Peru, and Its Long Aftermath. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Walsham, Alexandra. Providence in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Ward, Harry M. “Unite or Die”: Intercolony Relations, 1690–1763. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971.

Waterman, Bryan. Republic of Intellect: The Friendly Club of New York City and the Making of American Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

Weaver, John C., and Peter de Lottinville. “The Conflagration and the City: Disaster and Progress in British North America during the Nineteenth Century.” Histoire Sociale—Social History 13 (1980): 417–49.

Weinberg, Michael. “The Great New York City Fire of 1835.” TCC Bulletin. https://www.transcollectorsclub.org/bulletin_previews/articles/10Autumn_Great_NY_City_Fire_feature.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Wesley, Megan. “Early Lifesavers—the Cork Lifejacket.” National Maritime Museum Cornwall. http://www.nmmc.co.uk/index.php?/collections/featured_objects/early_lifesavers_the_cork_lifejacket. Accessed 23 Nov. 2018.

Westergaard, Waldemar. The Danish West Indies under Company Rule (1671–1754), with a Supplementary Chapter (1755–1917). New York: Macmillan, 1917.

White, Sam. A Cold Welcome: The Little Ice Age and Europe’s Encounter with North America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017.

———. “Unpuzzling American Climate: New World Experience and the Foundations of a New Science.” Isis: Journal of the History of Science and Society 106 (2015): 544–66.

Williams, Susan Millar, and Stephen G. Hoffius. Upheaval in Charleston: Earthquake and Murder on the Eve of Jim Crow. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

Winch, Julie. Philadelphia’s Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787–1848. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Winiarski, Douglas L. Darkness Falls on the Land of Light: Experiencing Religious Awakenings in Eighteenth-Century New England. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Witmore, Michael. Culture of Accidents: Unexpected Knowledges in Early Modern England. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Yellott, John Bosley, Jr. “Jeremiah Yellott—Revolutionary War Privateersman and Baltimore Philanthropist.” Maryland Historical Magazine 86 (1991): 176–89.

Young, Bryan J. Patrician Families and the Making of Quebec: The Taschereaus and McCords. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2014.

Zohn, Harry, and M. C. Davis. “Johann Christoph Wagenseil, Polymath.” Monatshefte 46 (1954): 35–40. (p.274)