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Inventing DisasterThe Culture of Calamity from the Jamestown Colony to the Johnstown Flood$

Cynthia A. Kierner

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781469652511

Published to North Carolina Scholarship Online: January 2021

DOI: 10.5149/northcarolina/9781469652511.001.0001

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(p.275) Index

(p.275) Index

Source:
Inventing Disaster
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations or their captions.

abolitionists, 160, 179
Adams, John, 69, 197
Aetna, 168, 171–72, 173
Africa, 52, 69, 134
African Americans, 203, 207, 212;
Richmond theater fire and, 158, 159;
steamboat disasters and, 171, 191–92, 192;
yellow fever and, 140, 203. See also slaves
agents, colonial, 101, 109
Albany, N.Y., 138, 167, 168
Albany Congress, 108
Alcock, Thomas, 84
Alexander, Ann Tuke, 160
Alexandria, Va., 108, 145, 162
Alida and Catharine, 52
Allen, Richard, 140
almanacs, 96, 97
American Philosophical Society, 137
American Revolution, 126, 131–32
American Sunday School Union, 161
amusement parks, 209, 210
Anderson, Leroy, 155, 161
Anderson, Margaret, 155, 161
Anguish, Thomas, 94
Annapolis, Md., 54, 109
Anne (queen), 118
Antigua, 55, 126, 129
Apthorp, Charles W., 107
Archer, Gabriel, 22
Arctic, 191
Aristotle, 70
Armenia, 197
Ashtabula, Ohio, 201
Ashton, Thomas, 81
atheism, 74, 84, 85
Atlantic City, N.J., 209, 210
Augusta, Princess of Wales, 118
Ayers, Sarah, 109
Ayshire, 173
Bache, Alexander Dallas, 175
Bacon, Francis, 15, 61, 68
ballads. See popular culture
Baltimore, 8, 147, 150, 157, 176
Bancroft, Edward W., 193
Barbados, 71, 120, 132
Baretti, Joseph, 97–98
Barker, George, 205
Barnes, Martha, 109
barometers, 71
Barrow, Robert, 49, 51
Bartlett, William, 149
Barton, Clara, 206, 207
Beaver, James A., 206
Bellew, Frank, 195
benevolence, xiii, 62, 99–100, 128, 146, 166, 212;
American identity and, 133, 134, 139, 145, 165;
British identity and, 79, 80, 91, 92, 93–96, 117, 119;
religion and, 59, 103, 107, 115, 119, 139, 185, 211;
sensibility and, 4, 11, 48, 53, 62, 87, 148, 165, 187, 209;
statecraft and, 115–20, 126, 131–32, 141–42, 147, 211;
Bermuda, 11, 15, 23–24, 41
Betsy, Hurricane, 212
Bibby, Mrs., 127
Biddulph, John, 84 (p.276)
Birkenhead, 191
Blair, John Durbarrow, 161–62, 164
Bohemia, 78
Bollan, William, 109
Boon Island, Me., 48
Boston, 8, 63, 104–5, 137, 147, 151, 180, 193;
fires in, 100, 101–10, 137, 149, 151, 204, 208;
newspapers in, 54–55, 77;
town meeting in, 101, 109, 194
Botetourt, Lord (Norbourne Berkeley), 124
Botts, Benjamin, 154
Botts, Jane, 154
Bradford, William, 28, 46
Brady, Mathew, 203
Bridgeport, Conn., 180
Bridgetown, Barbados, 120
Bristol, Eng., 54, 108
Britannia, 115, 116
British Empire:
colonial pride in, 96;
disaster relief in, 11, 100, 115–20, 126, 131–32, 141–42, 147, 211
Brooke, Christopher, 34, 36, 37
Broome, John, 138
Brown, Moses, 149
Bucks County, Pa., 139
Burt, John, 84
Bush Hill (Pa.), 136–37
Byron, 187
Cádiz, 77, 82
calamity, culture of, 1, 8, 201, 202, 209, 210–12;
origins of xiii, 2, 3–4, 9, 70;
shipwrecks and 39, 54, 68
California, 9, 143, 202;
wildfires in, xii, 13, 212
Callao, Peru, 75
Canada, 108, 110, 141–42. See also specific locations
Canary Islands, 143
cannibalism, 16, 18, 48, 49, 50, 223–24n13
Canso, Nova Scotia, 58, 59
Cape Ann (Mass.), 45
Cape Hatteras (N.C.), 177
Cape Henlopen (Pa.), 64
Cape Verde, 52
Capps, William, 29
captivity narratives, 89–90
Caracas, 143
Carey, Mathew, 139–41, 203
Caribbean. See West Indies
Carpenter, Samuel, 50
Carteret, 56
Catherine, 57–58
Catholics, 23, 27, 31, 44;
in Montreal, 110–11, 115;
in Portugal, 77, 80, 81, 90, 93
Chandler, Samuel, 72, 74
charitable associations, 63, 92, 99, 115, 118, 179–80, 201, 206
charity briefs, 103, 106, 109, 231n15
Charles I (king), 16
Charleston, S.C., 54, 63;
earthquake in, 203, 206, 212;
fire in, 92, 99, 101
Charlotte (queen), 118
Chauncy, Charles, 84
Chicago:
fire in, 8, 9, 12, 17, 152, 201, 204, 206
cholera, 141, 153
churches, 92, 164;
disaster relief and, 4, 102, 103, 106, 107, 113, 137, 149, 151
Cincinnati, 145, 168, 176, 177, 178, 197
Civil War (U.S.), 5, 202, 203, 206, 207
Clark, Samuel, 95
Clarkson, Matthew, 136–37, 139–40
class, 8, 9, 10, 188, 190
clergy, 4, 23, 185;
disaster relief and, 102, 103, 106, 107, 113, 149, 151;
earthquakes and, 70, 72, 73, 79, 81–86;
Jamestown and, 26–27, 28, 31, 33;
Richmond theater fire and, 154, 159–60, 161–62;
shipwreck narratives and, 38, 41, 42–48. See also churches; religion
Clermont, 167, 168
climate change, xii, xiii, 5, 13, 16–17, 71, 210
Clinton, George, 138
Cold War era, 5
Cole, Thomas, 241n25
Collamore, Anthony, 47
Collet, John, 53, 54
Collet, Mrs., 53, 54
Collins, Captain, 76–77, 87
Collins, Edward Knight, 195
Coney Island, 209
Congress, U.S., 5, 136, 142, 144, 152;
disaster prevention and, 142–43;
disaster relief and, 142–45, 207, 208;
steamboat safety and, 172, 175, 176, 196, 198–99
(p.277)
Constitution, U.S., 97, 141
Conyers, Sally, 154
Cornhill, Eng., 117
coroners’ inquests, 12, 167, 179–80, 193, 197
corporations, 12, 15, 19, 29, 169, 210–11;
insurance, 63, 117, 145, 198;
railroad 199;
steamboat, 172, 178, 193, 194–96
Corwin, Thomas, 195
cotton, 168, 179, 180, 198, 211
Crashaw, William, 26–27
Cuba, 143
Cullen, Dr., 131
Cunard, Samuel, 195
Currency Act (1764), 124–25, 126
Currier, Nathaniel, 180–81, 182, 184, 185, 203
cyclorama, 97
Dale, Thomas, 22, 27
Dana, Phineas, 147
Darby, Pa., 137
Dartmouth, Lord (William Legge), 130
Davies, Gareth, 207
Davies, Samuel, 81, 96–97
Davis, John, 193–94, 197
Davis, Mike, 12–13
De La Warr, Lord (Thomas West), 22, 25
Defoe, Daniel:
A Journal of the Plague Year, 61–62;
Robinson Crusoe, 38, 51, 59–60;
The Storm, 61
deism, 82, 84, 85, 163–64
DeLancey, James, 108
Delaware, 137
Delaware River, 167
Denmark, 130
Derham, William, 86
Dickinson, Jonathan, 49–51, 50
dioramas, 181
disaster narratives, 11, 61, 154, 155, 165, 185–88, 199, 201. See also shipwreck narratives
disaster prevention, xii, 2, 4;
disaster relief, xii, 1, 2, 3, 30, 211, 212–13;
British imperial, 11, 92, 98, 99–100, 108–20 passim, 126, 130, 131–32, 141–42, 150, 211, 236n20;
churches and 4, 102, 103, 106, 107, 113, 137, 149, 151;
fund-raising networks and 101, 107–9, 113–24 passim, 128–29, 137, 146, 147, 149;
local committees and 4–5, 136–38, 141, 146, 148–51, 164, 204, 206, 207–8;
international 69, 79, 91, 102, 143, 204, 206, 213;
nongovernmental organizations and 201, 206;
Disaster Relief Act (1950), 5, 208
disasters:
costs of, xii–xiii;
as divine portents, 46–47, 56–57, 69, 70, 71–72, 81, 82, 107, 127–28, 134, 138, 159–60, 161, 163–64;
normalization of, 5, 8, 11, 208, 213;
twenty-first-century, xi–xiii, 2, 3, 211–13
disease, 139, 211;
at Jamestown, 3, 14, 16–17, 30;
in Europe, 61–62;
in Philadelphia, 10, 133, 134–41, 148, 165, 203, 211–12. See also specific diseases
Doddington Indiaman, 52–54
Dolphin, 59
Dorothy, 56
Downing, Andrew Jackson, 197
Draper, Samuel, 1–7
drought, 16–17, 208, 211
Dublin, 59, 140
Dunmore, Lord (John Murray), 125, 126
earthquakes, 46, 192;
as divine portents, 69, 70, 71–72, 81, 82;
in Charleston, 203, 206, 212;
in Great Britain, 70, 72, 74, 81;
in Jamaica, 71, 72, 73;
in Lisbon, 4, 9, 10, 11, 69–70, 75–80, 88–91, 120, 123;
in New England, 69, 72, 82–85, 123;
in New Madrid, 12, 143;
in Peru, 74–75, 78;
in San Francisco, 8, 201, 208, 211, 212;
study of, 70–71, 85–86;
in Venezuela, 143
Elizabeth I (queen), 63
Ellms, Charles, 186–87
Embargo Act (1807), 148
engineers, 77;
flood control and, 211;
steamboats and, 169, 172, 178, 195, 197, 198
(p.278)
Enlightenment, the, xiii, 2, 3–4, 9, 65, 68, 71, 164, 209, 211;
Scottish, 87
entertainment, disaster-themed, 97, 181, 185, 186–88, 208–9, 210. See also popular culture
epidemics, 61–62, 81, 133, 134–35, 141, 142, 153;
as divine portents, 134, 138, 159. See also specific diseases
Epsom, N.H., 151
Ethiopia, 213
evangelicals, 70, 81, 160, 161, 164
explosions, steamboat, 166–80, 184, 185–86, 187, 191–93, 196–97, 198, 201, 204;
deaths due to, 170, 171, 174, 176, 179, 181, 191, 193, 196–97, 241n20, 243n53;
newspaper reports of, 166, 169–70, 171, 174, 176, 179–80, 203;
in popular culture, 12, 166, 178, 180, 181, 184–88, 199, 203;
public response to, 171–72, 174, 175, 177–78, 192–93, 194, 197–98;
as spectacles, 169, 170, 176, 193
Fahy, John, 127
Falconer, William, 38, 60–61
famine, 59, 81, 123, 141–42, 143, 207, 213;
at Jamestown, 3, 14, 16–17, 19–37 passim;
post-disaster, 91, 128, 129, 130, 131
Fauquier, Francis, 113
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), xiii, 1, 213
Figueiredo, Antonio Pereira de, 88
Fillmore, Millard, 198
Finn, Henry James William, 179
fire companies, 101, 111
fire engines, 101, 111, 117, 119, 151, 179
firefighting, 101, 102, 158, 163, 175, 198
fireproof buildings, 173
fires, 11, 13, 117, 133, 142, 144, 192, 211;
in Alexandria, 145;
in Boston, 100, 101–10, 137, 149, 151, 204, 208;
in Bridgetown, 120;
in Charleston, 92, 99, 101, 120;
in Chicago, 9, 12, 17, 152, 201, 204, 206;
as divine portents, 107, 159–60, 161, 163–64;
in Fredericksburg, 148, 153;
frequency of, 101, 110, 114, 145, 153;
at Jamestown, 17;
in Lisbon, 69;
in London, 4, 6–7, 10, 62, 78, 107;
in Montreal, 110–19, 150, 211;
in Newburyport, 146, 160;
in New York, 144, 145, 181, 183, 184, 203;
in Peshtigo, 12, 201;
in Pittsburgh, 145;
in Portsmouth, 144, 145–51, 153, 163, 165, 208;
in Richmond, 12, 133, 152–64, 165, 178, 201, 204
Fitch, John, 172
Flagg, Edward, 168
Fleming, Abraham, 70
floods, 46, 69, 206, 207, 208;
in Johnstown, 2, 3, 201, 202–3, 204, 205, 206–7;
Mississippi River and, 207, 211, 219n6;
in Virginia 100, 120, 122–26
Florida, 9, 49–50, 92, 206
flotation devices, 65, 66, 67, 68, 174
Follen, Charles, 179
Fowle, Zachariah, 107
Foxcroft, Thomas, 85
France, 31, 61, 76, 97, 135, 195
Francis, Joseph, 174
Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 203–4
Franklin, Benjamin, 71, 175
Franklin Institute, 172, 173, 174–75, 196
Fredericksburg, Va., 148, 153
Freedmen’s Bureau, 207
Freeman, Samuel, 149
Freke, John, 82, 84
French and Indian War, 64, 94, 97, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113. See also Seven Years’ War
Frethorne, Richard, 29
Fulton, Robert, 167, 172
Furness, W. H., 185
Gable, Clark, 209
Galveston:
hurricane in, 8, 201, 203, 209, 212
Gates, Thomas, 18, 25
Gaynor, Janet, 209
gender, 9, 39, 146, 155, 188, 190;
disaster casualties and, 53, 153, 157, 191, 197
Gentleman’s Magazine, 52, 59, 66, 74, 85, 88–89, 122–23
George II (king), 11, 80, 92–96;
colonial eulogies for, 96–97
George III (king), 99–100, 114, 118–20, 126, 130, 131–32, 147;
bust of, 119–20, 121
Georgetown, D.C., 145
Germantown, Pa., 137 (p.279)
Gibbon, James, 154
Gibbons, Major, 44–45
Gibbons, Thomas, 93–94
Gilman, Samuel, 161
Girardin, Louis Hue, 154
Glencoe, 196
Gloucester, Mass., 39
government:
disaster prevention and, 1, 2, 29–30, 98, 164, 175, 199, 208;
governors:
colonial, and disaster relief, 99, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108–9, 111–13, 120, 127, 128–30;
state, disaster relief and, 136, 206
Great Britain:
aid to Portugal, 80, 91–95, 120;
charitable associations in, 92, 99, 115, 118;
earthquakes in, 70, 72, 74
Great Fresh, 100, 120, 122–26
Great Gale, 173, 181
Greene, Robert, 38
Greene, Thomas, 108
Grey, Zachary, 70
Haiti, 134, 135
Hakluyt, Richard, 41
Halifax, James, 85
Hamilton, Alexander, 127–28, 131, 138, 142
Hamilton, Eliza Schuyler, 138
Hamilton, James, 109
Hamlet, N.C., 211
handshakes, 140, 235n16
Hanover, Va., 81
Hanover, house of, 94, 96. See also George II; George III
Hanson, Alexander Contee, 238n53
Hanway, Jonas, 115–18, 116, 119–20, 150, 211
Happy Deliverance, 53
Hare, Robert, 173
Harper’s Weekly, 8, 203–4
Harrison, Benjamin, 207
Harvard College, 46, 85, 86, 179
Harvey, Hurricane, xii
Haven, Samuel, 96
Haverhill, Mass., 151
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 197, 241n25
Hay, George, 153
Helen McGregor, 174
Hempstead, N.Y., 181
Henrico, Va., 27, 32
Henry, Patrick, 113, 122
Henry Clay, 197–98
Hervey, James, 81
Hessian fly, 141
Hewitt, Thomas B., 162
Heytesbury, Eng., 117
Hilliard, Chester, 179
Hillsborough, Lord (Wills Hill), 122, 125–26, 129
Home, 177
Homer, 40
Hone, Philip, 188, 190
Honiton, Eng., 117
hospitals, 115, 118, 119, 127, 130, 136–37, 140, 172
Howe, Thomas, 127
Howland, Southworth Allen, 186
Hudson River, 167, 168, 197
human agency:
belief in, xiii, 39, 56–57, 62, 65–68, 102, 163–64, 167, 199, 211. See also benevolence; science
humane societies, 174, 197, 240n14
humanitarianism, 87, 91, 92, 99, 174, 206, 212. See also benevolence; sympathy
Hunt, Gilbert, 158, 159
Hunter, Thomas, 80, 81
hurricanes, xi, 46, 55, 61, 173, 181, 192;
Betsy, 212;
as divine portents, 46–47, 56–57, 127–28;
in England, 61;
in Galveston, 8, 201, 203, 209, 212;
Harvey, xii;
Irma, xii;
Katrina, xi, xiii, 3, 9, 17, 201, 211, 212, 213;
Maria, xii, xiii, 9, 212;
Sandy, x, xi, xii;
shipwrecks and, 23, 24, 25, 39, 45, 49, 55;
in West Indies, 10, 39, 55, 71, 100, 126–32, 142
hydraspis, 65, 66
Illinois, 206
immigrants, 9, 58, 59, 143, 171, 188, 193, 203, 236n25
Inches, Captain, 88
India, 52, 110, 142
Indians. See Native Americans (p.280)
industrialization, 169, 185, 188, 199;
workplace fatalities and, 87, 199, 211
information, movement of, 4, 75–77, 87–88, 100, 103, 122–23, 135, 146–47, 180, 202, 212–13, 230n3;
trade and, 10, 55, 62, 76, 88, 127–28. See also newspapers; print culture
Inquisition, the:
in Portugal, 77, 80, 81
insect infestations, 143, 207
insurance, 8, 199;
federal flood, 8, 208;
fire, 117, 151, 163;
marine, 62–63, 226n48
Ipswich, Mass., 160
Ireland, 57, 59, 143, 236n25
Irma, Hurricane, xii
Italy, 62, 63, 76, 97
Ives, James Merritt, 180, 185
Jackson, Andrew, 175
Jamaica, 49, 71, 72, 73, 132
James I (king), 15, 30
Jamestown colony, 2, 3, 10–11, 14–37, 41;
disease in, 14, 16–17, 30;
famine in, 3, 14, 16–17, 19–32 passim;
fire in, 17;
mortality in, 14, 16, 30
Janeway, James, 41–45, 43, 47, 107
Jefferson, Thomas, 135, 147, 148, 150
Johnstown, Pa.:
flood in, 2, 3, 201, 202–3, 204, 205, 206–7;
relief for, 204, 206, 207–8
Johonnot, Andrew, 107
Jones, Absalom, 140
Jones, Evan, 53, 54
Josselin, Ralph, 71
Jourdain, Sylvester, 41
Kalamazoo, Mich., 180
Kansas, 207, 212–13
Kant, Immanuel, 78
Katrina, Hurricane, xi, xiii, 3, 9, 17, 201, 213
Kensington, Eng., 118
Kew, Eng., 118
Kilby, Christopher, 107
Kingston, Jamaica, 54
Knox, Henry, 135
Knox, Hugh, 127, 130–31
Langdon, John, 147
Lawrence, Charles, 108
Lawson, Deodat, 47–48
Leeward Islands, 126–31
legislatures:
colonial, disaster relief and, 102–3, 113, 123–25, 129;
state, disaster relief and, 136, 141, 145, 153, 208, 213;
state, safety regulations and, 175, 199. See also Congress, U.S.; Parliament
Leibniz, Wilhelm, 74
Levy, Moses, 148
Lexington, 178–81, 182, 185, 186, 190–91, 193, 194, 201, 203
Library Company of Philadelphia, 51
lifeboats, 173, 174, 176, 179, 197, 198
life jackets, 67, 68, 197, 198
lighthouses, 63–64, 142
Lima, 75, 78
Lisbon, 41, 56, 120;
earthquake in, 4, 9, 10, 11, 69–70, 75–80, 86–91, 120, 123, 185;
fire in, 69;
merchants in, 80, 88–92, 95;
rebuilding of, 69, 77, 78, 98
lithography, 166, 180, 181, 185, 203
litigation, post-disaster, 3, 178, 194, 196, 197, 199, 201. See also coroners’ inquests
Little Conemaugh River, 202, 207
Little Ice Age, 16–17, 71
Livingston, John, 111
Livingston, Robert R., 167
Lloyd, James T., 188, 193
Lloyd’s Steamboat Directory, 169, 188, 189
location, politics of, 8, 12, 75, 212
Lombard, Carole, 209
London, 33, 54, 63, 75, 97, 118, 127, 140;
charitable associations in, 92, 99, 115, 118;
earthquakes in, 70, 74, 81;
fire in, 4, 6–7, 10, 62, 78, 107;
hurricane in, 61;
imperial officials in, 92, 100–101, 109–10, 114, 122–32 passim, 141–42;
merchants in, 99, 101, 108, 114–15, 122, 125, 128;
plague in, 61–62;
Virginia Company of, 10, 14–32 passim
Long Island Sound, 179
lotteries, 64
Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, 64, 108
Louisiana, 185
Louisville, Ky., 168
Mackey, Elizabeth, 150–51
Macon, Miss., 207 (p.281)
Madagascar, 52
Madison, Wisc., 180
magazines, 52, 59, 66, 74, 85, 88–89, 122–23, 202, 203–4
malaria, 153, 211
Marblehead, Mass., 147
Maria, Dionysia Rose, 88, 97
Maria, Hurricane, xii, xiii, 9, 212
Marietta, Ohio, 170
mariners, 32, 39–40, 52–54, 60;
cannibalism and, 48, 49, 50, 223n13;
technical skills of, 55–56, 61, 62. See also ship captains
Marseilles:
plague in, 61–62
Mary I (queen), 31
Maryland, 80
masculinity, 36, 53, 58, 130, 155, 157, 159, 187–88, 190–91
Massachusetts, 64, 69, 80, 107, 122, 152. See also Boston; New England
Mather, Cotton, 42, 44, 46–47, 48
Mather, Frederick Ellsworth, 198
Mather, Increase, 42, 44, 45–47, 46, 82
Mayhew, Jonathan, 84, 103, 107
McClary, Michael, 151
Mebane, Adam, 111–12
memorialization:
of disaster victims, 53, 123, 153–54, 159, 164, 166, 185, 193
merchants, 49, 55, 62–63, 70, 95, 111, 122–25;
disaster relief and, 4, 80, 91–92, 99, 107–8, 114–18, 120, 128, 131, 147, 149, 150;
in Lisbon, 80, 88–92, 95;
in London, 99, 101, 108, 109, 114–15, 122, 125, 128;
in Montreal, 110, 111, 112;
in New England, 107, 109, 147, 149, 150;
in New York, 107, 144, 148;
as sources of information, 4, 10, 62, 76, 88, 127–28
Merian, Matthaeus, 34, 35
Mexico, 181
Michell, John, 86
Michigan, Lake, 169
micro-history, xi, 9
Mifflin, Thomas, 136
military:
post-disaster use of, 1, 206, 207, 208, 209
Mills, Robert, 173
Mississippi, 176
Mississippi River, 168, 207, 211
Missouri, 207
monarchy:
benevolence and, 92–93, 94–97, 99, 114, 118–20, 147
Montreal:
fire in, 110–19, 150, 211;
merchants in, 110, 111, 112
Montserrat, 55
Monumental Church (Richmond, Va.), 159, 164
moral sense, 87
Morley, Joseph, 91
mortality:
from earthquakes, 4, 69, 72, 74–75;
from fires, 152, 153, 201, 211;
from floods, 122, 201;
from hurricanes, 100, 126, 132, 201, 211;
at Jamestown, 14, 16, 30;
at sea, 15–16, 39–40;
from steamboat disasters, 170, 171, 174, 176, 179, 181, 191–93, 196–97, 241n20, 243n53;
from yellow fever, 135, 140, 153
Moselle, 175, 176, 177, 178, 186
Moss, Charles, 85
mourning, public, 96–97, 140, 152, 153, 159, 161–62, 171
movies, 209
Mulcahy, Matthew, 10, 225n38
Murray, James, 111–13
music. See popular culture
Natchez, Miss., 167
National Flood Insurance Program, 208
national identity, 39, 41;
American, 11, 133, 134, 139, 155, 159, 160, 165, 167, 191;
British, 11, 37, 40, 41, 51, 68, 79, 80, 91–92, 95
Native Americans, 45, 51, 143, 168;
in colonial Virginia, 17, 18, 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 31–37;
portrayed as savages, 27, 28, 31–37, 35, 49–50, 51, 90, 159
Nebraska, 207
Nelson, William, 123–26
Netherlands, the, 78
Nevis, 126
Newburyport, Mass., 149;
fire in, 146, 160
New England, 26, 58, 108, 110, 147, 148;
earthquakes in, 69, 72, 82–85, 123;
maritime activities in, 39–40, 45;
merchants in, 107, 109, 147, 149, 150;
providential mission of colonists in, 45–48
(p.282)
Newfoundland, 17, 56, 187
New Haven, Conn., 108
New Jersey, 137, 148, 211
New-Jersey (steamboat), 192
New Jersey, College of, 97
New Madrid earthquakes, 12, 143
New Orleans, xiii, 3, 9, 167, 168, 180, 185, 197, 211, 212
New Orleans (steamboat), 167
Newport, R.I., 54, 147, 177
newspapers, 11, 30, 38, 100, 113, 169–70, 204;
in Britain, 30, 54, 62, 76, 114;
in colonial America, 54–55, 76–77, 87–88, 95–96, 101, 122, 135, 222n32;
fires reported in, 101–2, 114, 146–47;
floods in, 122–23, 202–3;
hurricanes in, 39, 55, 126–27, 130, 131;
illustrations in, 180, 182, 183, 184, 202, 203;
Lisbon earthquake in, 75–77, 87–88;
in postrevolutionary America, 135;
shipwrecks in, 39, 54–59;
steamboat explosions in, 166, 169–70, 171, 174, 176, 179–80, 193. See also penny press; print culture
New York (City), 63, 64, 137–38, 141, 163, 167, 168, 171, 202;
fire in, 144, 145, 181, 183, 184, 203;
merchants in, 107, 144, 148;
newspapers in, 54, 77, 180–81, 182, 183, 184, 197, 203
New York (State), 137, 148, 211
New York Coffee House (London), 114
New York Herald, 181, 183, 203
New York Sun, 180, 182, 184, 203
Norfolk, Va., 63, 144, 147, 159
North Carolina, 176
North River Steamboat, 167
Norwich, Eng., 54
Nottingham Galley, 48
Nova Scotia, 58–59, 108
novels, 51, 52, 57, 87, 154
Nowell, William, 95
Ogle, Hettie, 204
Ohio, 206
Ohio River, 170, 207
Oklahoma, 212–13
Oliver Ellsworth, 241n15
O’Lynch, John, 154
Opechancanough’s uprising, 31, 32–37, 35
optimist philosophers, 74
Oronoko, 176
orphans, 91, 128, 137, 145, 146, 150, 151, 154
Osborn, Danvers, 108
Parkersburgh, W.V., 170
Parkhurst, Thomas, 42
Parliament, 126, 128;
colonial petitions to, 109, 114, 130;
disaster relief and, 80, 92, 95, 99–100, 118, 131–32
Payne, Ralph, 127, 128–30
Peacham, Vt., 150
Pearce, Charles, 147
pellagra, 17
Penn, Richard, 128
Pennington, John, 84
Pennsylvania, 80, 96, 113, 128, 137, 143
Pennsylvania, University of, 173
penny press, 181, 184, 203
Percy, George, 17, 29, 31
Peru:
earthquake in, 74–75, 78
Peshtigo, Wisc., fire, 12, 152, 201
petitions, 109, 114, 130, 132, 197–98
Pharazin, A., 192
Philadelphia, 49, 50, 54, 63, 64, 108, 148, 167, 177, 202;
relief committee in, 136–38, 139–40;
yellow fever in, 10, 133, 134–41, 148, 165, 203, 211–12
philanthropy, 92, 99, 107–8, 115, 118–20, 133, 207, 208. See also benevolence
Philpot, Mr., 127
Phoenix, 168
photography, 202, 203–4
pirates, 44, 51, 154
Pittsburgh, 145, 167, 168, 197, 198, 202, 204
Plymouth colony, 28, 46
Pocahontas, 31, 33
police, 204, 209
Polk, James K., 145
Pombal, Marquis of (Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo), 77
Pope, Alexander, 74
popular culture, 70, 97, 154, 161, 190, 201, 204, 208–9;
Lisbon earthquake in, 76, 78, 79, 86–88, 97;
steamboat explosions in, 12, 166, 178, 180, 181, 184–88, 199
(p.283)
Portland, Me., 149
Port Royal, Jamaica, 49;
earthquake in, 71, 72, 73
Portsmouth, N.H.: fires in, 144, 145–51, 153, 163, 165;
relief committee in 146, 148–51, 208
Portugal, 40–41, 70, 92. See also Lisbon
Pory, John, 28
Postal Service, U.S., 135
Powell, Nathaniel, 34, 36
Pownall, Thomas, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108–9, 120, 124
Pratt, Henry C., 241n25
prayer, public days of, 80, 96, 123, 127, 153, 161, 162
Price, Benjamin, 111–12, 113–14
Prince George, 59
print culture, xii, 9, 30, 51–52, 85, 91, 111, 154, 204;
expansion of 54, 62, 75, 98, 135, 146;
images in 12, 76, 78, 98, 180, 181, 203–4
privateers, 54
Protestantism:
English/British identity and, 18, 22–23, 26–29, 31, 37, 41–51, 80, 90, 115, 117
providence, divine:
belief in, 20, 22–28, 53, 81–85;
earthquakes and, 70, 71, 72;
fires and, 102, 107, 159–60;
hurricanes and, 46–47, 56–57, 127–28;
human agency and, 56–57;
Opechancanough’s uprising and, 32–34, 37;
shipwreck narratives and, 41–51, 52. See also religion
Providence, R.I., 108, 181
public health, 30, 141
Puerto Rico, xiii, 9, 212
Pulaski, 175, 176–77, 178, 187–88
Purchas, Samuel, 33
Puritans, 23, 26, 45, 160
Quakers, 49, 50, 51
quarantines, 10, 136, 137, 138, 142–43, 165
Quebec, 111, 112, 113
Quincy, Edmund, 147
race, 9, 10, 39, 140, 159, 188, 190, 203, 207, 212
radio, 219n6
railroads, 5, 179, 185, 190, 199, 201, 202, 206
Raleigh, N.C., 153–54
Raleigh, Walter, 15
Randolph, Edmund, 136
Randolph, Ryland, 122, 123
Raritan Bay, 171
Ratcliffe, John, 17
Ray, David, 150
Reconstruction, 207
Red Cross, xii, 1, 3, 201, 206, 207, 208
Redfield, William C., 171, 173
Reformation, 49
refugees, 118
regulation, 12, 13, 30, 141, 165, 210;
environmental, xiii, 210–11;
fire, 101, 103, 155, 163, 211;
public calls for, 172, 174, 175, 177–78, 194, 197–98
religion, 8, 11;
benevolence and, 59, 103, 107, 115, 119, 139, 185, 211;
European colonization and, 18, 25–28;
science and, 46–47, 71–72, 74–75, 80, 82, 85–86;
shipwreck narratives and, 41–52;
as a source of comfort, 48, 59, 74, 153, 161–62, 185. See also clergy; providence, divine
religious revivals, 72, 82, 164
Richmond, Va., 124, 162, 204;
churches and clergy in, 153, 161–62, 164;
city council in, 152, 162;
fire in, 12, 133, 152–64, 156, 157, 165, 178, 185, 201
Richmond Enquirer, 154, 157, 162, 163
Riley, Bennet, 143
risk, 5, 8, 62–63, 199, 209, 211
Ritchie, Thomas, 157, 162, 163–64, 238n53
Riverdale, N.Y., 197
Roanoke colony, 15
Robinsonades, 59–60
Roepstorff, Ulrich Wilhelm von, 130–31, 132
Rolfe, John, 31
Rotherhithe, Eng., 117
Royal Academy of Sciences (Paris), 66
Royal Navy, 63, 67, 68, 71, 115
Royal Society (London), 46, 68, 71, 85, 86
Royal Tar, 181, 187
royal touch, 118
Rozario, Kevin, 5, 8
Ruggles, John, 195–96
Rush, Benjamin, 135, 136, 140
Russia, 76
Ryther, John, 42 (p.284)
Sable Island, 57, 58
Sagadahoc River, 15
sailors. See mariners
Salem, Mass., 147, 149, 150
Saluda, 196
Sandy, Hurricane. See Superstorm Sandy
Sandy Hook, N.J., 64
San Francisco:
earthquake in, 8, 201, 208, 211, 212
Savannah, Ga., 147, 176, 177
Scandinavia, 69
Schuyler, Philip, 138
Schwartz, Stuart, 10, 225n38
science, xiii, 4, 15, 172–74, 209–10, 211;
empiricism in, 15, 46, 61, 68, 69, 70–72, 78, 85, 86, 172;
religion and, 46–47, 71–72, 74–75, 80, 82, 85–86, 163
scientists, 77, 172–73, 197
Scituate, Mass., 47
Seaside Heights, N.J., x, xi
Sea Venture, 11, 15, 19, 23–25, 41
Seneca, 70
sensationalism, 154, 155, 166, 181, 184, 185–86, 201, 203, 208–9. See also penny press
sensibility, 9, 52, 54, 57–59, 79, 86–87, 113, 128, 129, 159, 211–12;
benevolence and, 11, 48, 53, 62, 87, 148, 165, 187, 209;
defined, 4, 48
Seven Years’ War, 94, 110, 118. See also French and Indian War
Shakespeare, William, 10, 15, 18–19, 24
Sharpe, Horatio, 109
shipbuilding, 40, 65, 174
ship captains, 49, 52, 55, 59, 176, 177, 180, 187;
racing and, 176, 197;
as sources of information, 10, 48, 54, 55, 76–77, 87, 88, 91
shipwreck narratives:
English, 42–54;
pious, 39–52, 209;
Portuguese, 40–41;
sentimental, 52–54, 57–61, 209;
technically oriented, 55–56
shipwrecks, 11, 15, 23–25, 38–61, 60, 169–71, 187
slave narratives, 186
slavery, 160, 168
slaves, 49, 64, 92, 99, 124, 126, 130, 158, 159
Sloane, Hans, 71
smallpox, 46–47, 153
Smith, George William, 152, 154
Smith, John:
as chronicler of English colonization, 19–22, 21, 27, 32;
in Jamestown, 17, 20, 30
social media, xiii, 3, 212–13
songs. See popular culture
South Carolina, 51, 64, 120, 193. See also Charleston, S.C.
South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, 202
Spain, 25, 56, 69, 75, 92, 97, 99, 143
Stamp Act, 99, 113, 120, 236n29
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 31–32
St. Christopher, 55, 126, 127, 128
St. Croix, 127–28, 130–31, 136
Steamboat Act (1838), 12, 175, 177–78, 193, 195–96, 198
Steamboat Act (1852), 12, 196, 197–99, 201
steamboats, 5, 12, 166–99;
in Europe, 169, 178, 191, 195;
passengers on, 167, 171, 177–78, 190, 191–92, 193, 194, 198;
as spectacles, 167, 168–69. See also explosions, steamboat
steam engines, 167, 171, 176–77
Steinberg, Ted, 8
stereographs, 204, 205
Stevens, Edward, 136
Stonington, Conn., 179
Stono Rebellion, 64, 226n52
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 168
Strachey, William, 19, 23–25, 30, 41
sublime, the, 78, 97, 168–69
Superstorm Sandy, x, xi, xii, 211
Swallow, 198
sympathy, 1, 11, 51, 62, 86, 133, 148–59 passim, 165, 186–87, 209, 211;
disaster relief and, 3, 68, 92, 115, 148–49, 206. See also benevolence; sensibility
Tanner, Benjamin, 155, 157
taxes, 64, 109, 110, 118, 142;
disaster relief and, xiii, 8–9, 102–3, 124, 126, 129, 144
technology, 5, 119, 202;
attitudes toward, 169, 174, 185;
steam, 168, 173, 199
telegraph, 202, 204, 206
television, xi, 3, 212
tempests. See hurricanes (p.285)
Texas, 206
Thacher, Anthony, 45–46, 47
theaters, 70, 160, 164, 190;
condemned as immoral, 133, 156, 160
Thomas, Ann, 171
Thomlinson, John, 109
Thornton, John, 114–15, 118
Thorpe, George, 34, 36
Threnodia, 47
Tirrell, William, 180
tobacco, 27, 29, 122–23, 124, 125, 174
tornadoes, 46, 192, 206, 207
tourism, 166, 188;
post-disaster, 3, 97–98, 164, 178, 230n55
Townshend Duties Act, 122, 125
transportation:
improvements in, 5, 166, 167–68, 188, 190, 192, 202. See also railroads; steamboats
travel writing, 51, 52, 97–98, 164
Trinity House, 63
tsunamis, xii, 69
tuberculosis, 153
Tybee Island, Ga., 64
Van Buren, Martin, 175, 177
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 179
Varick, Richard, 138
Venezuela, 143
Vernet, Claude-Joseph, 60
Vesuvius, 168
Vickery, Captain, 55
video games, 208
Virginia, 17, 113, 122;
floods in, 100, 120, 122–26. See also specific locations
Virginia, Council for, 26, 27
Virginia Company of London, 10, 14–32 passim
Virginia Company of Plymouth, 15
Volcano, 168
volcanoes, 168, 209
Voltaire, 70, 78, 86–87
voluntarism, 140–41, 142, 150, 164
Wagenseil, Johann Christoph, 66
Waldron, Daniel, 147
Walker, Thomas, 111
War of Independence. See American Revolution
Washington (steamboat), 170, 186
Washington, D.C., 145, 155, 207
Washington, George, 125, 135, 136, 159
Washington, N.J., 171
Waterhouse, Edward, 33, 34, 36, 37
weather, 17, 141;
study of, 71
Webb, William, 52–53
Webster, Daniel, 175
Wendell, Jacob, 109
Wesley, Charles, 74, 81
Wesley, John, 81
West Indies, 10, 69, 134–35, 136;
earthquakes in, 71, 72, 73;
hurricanes in, 10, 39, 55, 71, 100, 126–32, 142
Wheeler, Sophia, 185
Whiskey Rebellion, 143
Whitaker, Alexander, 27, 28
White, Joseph, 156
Whitefield, George, 70, 81, 110
Whitman, Walt, 204
widows, 91, 127, 128, 145, 146, 150, 151, 153, 179, 204
wildfires, xii, 13, 212–13
Wilkinson, John, 67–68
Willey avalanche, 178
Williamsburg, Va., 54, 122, 124, 125
Windsor, Eng., 118
Wingfield, Edward Maria, 28
Winthrop, John, 85, 86
Woodward, W. W., 147
World Central Kitchen, 212
Wynkoop, Henry, 139
yellow fever, 10, 134, 142, 153, 159, 206, 207, 211;
in Philadelphia, 10, 133, 134–41, 148, 165, 203, 211–12